Dwarka: The Home of Krishna is a Gateway to Heaven and an Underwater City

Dwarka: The Home of Krishna is a Gateway to Heaven and an Underwater City


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The modern city of Dwarka (meaning ‘Gateway to Heaven’ in Sanskrit) is located in the north-western Indian state of Gujarat. This city is regarded as one of the most prominent Chardham (the four sacred pilgrimage sites of Hinduism), and one of the seven most ancient religious sites in the country (the other six being Ayodhya, Mathura, Haridwar, Banaras, Kanchi and Ujjain.)

Dwarka and the Sacred City Dvārakā

The reputation of Dwarka is mainly due to the identification of the modern city with the mythological sacred city of Dvārakā, which is believed to have been the first capital of Gujarat. Dvārakā is mentioned in the Mahabharata, one of the two great epics of ancient India, as well as the Shrimad Bhagavad Gita , Skand Purana , Vishnu Purana and the Harivamsha.

According to Hindu mythology, Dvārakā was a city where Krishna, the eighth avatar of Vishnu, once lived. It is believed that Krishna was born in Mathura, just south of Delhi in the modern state of Uttar Pradesh. His uncle, Kansa, was the tyrannical ruler of this city and was eventually killed by Krishna. Kansa’s father-in-law, who was Jarasandh, the king of Magadha, was furious when he heard of Kansa’s murder, and tried to avenge his death.

Yashoda bathing the child Krishna from the Bhagavata Purana Manuscript (1500)

Although Mathura was attacked 17 times, it did not fall to Jarasandh. Nevertheless, his clan, the Yadavs, suffered heavy losses over the course of the lengthy conflict. As Krishna realized that his people would not be able to withstand another war with Jarasandh, he decided to leave Mathura with the Yadavs.

Krishna Builds Dvārakā

In one version of the story, Krishna was said to have been brought by Garuda (the mount of Vishnu) to the coast of Saurashtra in north-western India. It was there that Krishna founded the city of Dvārakā. In another version of the story, Krishna invoked Vishwakarma, the deity of construction, when he decided to build his new city. The deity, however, informed him that the task could only be completed if Samudradev, the Lord of the Sea, provided some land. Krishna worshipped Samudradev, who was pleased, and gave him 12 yojanas (773 square km/298.5 square miles) of land. With the land granted, Vishwakarma was then able to build the city of Dvārakā.

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The lord Krishna in Dvārakā. Opaque watercolor and gold on paper from the Harivamsha which narrates Krishna’s life. (circa 1600)

The Layout of the Mythological City of Dvārakā

Dvārakā is purported to have been thoroughly planned. The city is said to have been divided into six sectors which contained residential and commercial areas, wide roads, plazas, palaces (700,000 that were made of gold, silver and precious stones), as well as numerous public facilities, including beautiful gardens and lakes. A hall called the sudharma sabha (‘Meeting of True Religion’) was the place where public meetings were held. As the city was surrounded by water, it was connected to the mainland via bridges and a port.

Krishna’s childhood friend Sudama praising Krishna’s golden castle in Dvārakā. (1775-1790)

Seven Cities on the Site of Dvārakā

Krishna lived for the rest of his life in this newly-built city. Nonetheless, after being accidentally shot by an arrow whilst meditating under a tree in a forest at Bhalka Tirtha, Krishna departed from this world. After Krishna’s death, the city he founded was swallowed up by a massive flood, thus returning it to the ocean. It is said that over the centuries, a number of civilizations built their cities in the area where the city of Dvārakā once stood. The present city of Dwarka is believed to be the seventh one that was built there.

Wood carving depicting the death of Krishna.

A Mix of History and Myth

Dvārakā and its fate have been dismissed by some as merely a myth. Nevertheless, there are also those who fervently believe that there is a historical basis for this story. There have been archaeological excavations conducted in front of the modern city’s famous Dwarkadhish temple (the current structure is dated to the 16th century AD). Results from these excavations suggest that there is evidence for a destroyed proto-historic settlement dating all the way back to the 15th century BC.

Dwarkadhish temple dedicated to Krishna in Dwarka, India. ( Amit Rawat /Flickr )

Such a discovery gave impetus to archaeologists to conduct offshore investigations. The results of the underwater archaeological research show that there are indeed structures submerged just off the shore of the modern city as well. These include stone anchors of various shapes and sizes, dressed stone blocks that were used for construction and fortification walls of an ancient city. It has been speculated that these underwater structures also date to the 15 th century BC. Thus, it is entirely possible that the mythological city of Dvārakā founded by Krishna has its historical basis in this proto-historic settlement that was submerged under the waters.

Featured image: Painting by Grinlay’s (1826-1830) of ‘The sacred town and temples of Dwarka.’

By Ḏḥwty


Cultural heritage of gujrat-patolas

The magical dice was rolled by shakuni and Pandavas lose and Draupadi has been won by Kauravas.

And from here technically Kauravas owned Draupadi ,

they order Dushasana to disrobe Draupadi in public and from here a miracle take place.

No matter how much Dushasana tries to take a cloth but never ending cloth continue to cover and protect Draupadi.

The cloth that covered Draupadi was a saree.

This miracle happened just because of Lord Krishna.

The Ancient kingdom of Krishna’s is Dwarka (the home of Krishna is a gateway to heaven and an underwater city)which is located in the state of Gujarat.

Gujarat is also famous for their Patola sarees.

Patola is double ikat woven silk saree once worn only by those belonging to Royal and aristocratic families, as they are very expensive The sarees takes around 6 months to 1 year in manufacturing. one saree due to long process of dying it strand separately. The starting price of Patola sarees is 1lakh to 7 lakh.

Patola usually woven in Surat, Ahmedabad and Patan but velvet Patola style are majorly made in Surat.

Patan, the house of Patola, is 125 kms away from Ahmedabad. The town is also famous for ‘Rani –ki Vav’, a step-well made by a queen in honour of her husband. It is now a UNESCO World Heritage site.

About 900 years ago in 1143 A.D., around 700 craftsmen from the Salvi community hailing from modern day Karnataka and Maharashtra were brought by king Kumarpal of the Solanki dynasty (who then ruled Gujarat, parts of Rajasthan and Malwa) to his court, in his kingdom’s capital, Patan. These craftsmen lived in Jalna, situated in southern Maharashtra, and were considered to be the finest craftsmen of Patola.

Patola in modern day India…

Patola is undoubtedly the epitome of fine craftsmanship. Today, only 2-3 families, the Salvis and Sonis, practise this 900 year old craft in Patan. These families aren’t very open about the process of forging Patola. Only the family members, and in some cases only the male family members, are passed down this knowledge. Nobody from outside the community is admitted into craftsmanship.

However, in the past few years, the Sonis have loosened their boundaries and started passing this craft to people outside of their family who are hardworking, dedicated and passionate towards the craft. This change of attitude is because of the fear of Patola becoming extinct.

A weaver giving life to a Patola sari.

The current state of this art is alarming. Some Patola weavers have predicted that the art will vanish within the next 20 years or so. Lack of investment, fewer weavers, and dis-interest on the part of the younger generation of weaving families are reasons for such a prediction. Also cheap imitations are capturing the market.


Cultural heritage of gujrat-patolas

We all know the place Hastinapur and a case of Draupadi(the woman epitome of feminism) the wife of Pandavas and a dice game against Kauravas, which was responsible for Draupadi’s humiliation

The magical dice was rolled by shakuni and Pandavas lose and Draupadi has been won by Kauravas.

And from here technically Kauravas owned Draupadi ,

they order Dushasana to disrobe Draupadi in public and from here a miracle take place.

No matter how much Dushasana tries to take a cloth but never ending cloth continue to cover and protect Draupadi.

The cloth that covered Draupadi was a saree.

This miracle happened just because of Lord Krishna.

The Ancient kingdom of Krishna’s is Dwarka (the home of Krishna is a gateway to heaven and an underwater city)which is located in the state of Gujarat.

Gujarat is also famous for their Patola sarees.

Patola is double ikat woven silk saree once worn only by those belonging to Royal and aristocratic families, as they are very expensive The sarees takes around 6 months to 1 year in manufacturing. one saree due to long process of dying it strand separately. The starting price of Patola sarees is 1lakh to 7 lakh.

Patola usually woven in Surat, Ahmedabad and Patan but velvet Patola style are majorly made in Surat.

Patan, the house of Patola, is 125 kms away from Ahmedabad. The town is also famous for ‘Rani –ki Vav’, a step-well made by a queen in honour of her husband. It is now a UNESCO World Heritage site.

About 900 years ago in 1143 A.D., around 700 craftsmen from the Salvi community hailing from modern day Karnataka and Maharashtra were brought by king Kumarpal of the Solanki dynasty (who then ruled Gujarat, parts of Rajasthan and Malwa) to his court, in his kingdom’s capital, Patan. These craftsmen lived in Jalna, situated in southern Maharashtra, and were considered to be the finest craftsmen of Patola.

Patola in modern day India…

Patola is undoubtedly the epitome of fine craftsmanship. Today, only 2-3 families, the Salvis and Sonis, practise this 900 year old craft in Patan. These families aren’t very open about the process of forging Patola. Only the family members, and in some cases only the male family members, are passed down this knowledge. Nobody from outside the community is admitted into craftsmanship.

However, in the past few years, the Sonis have loosened their boundaries and started passing this craft to people outside of their family who are hardworking, dedicated and passionate towards the craft. This change of attitude is because of the fear of Patola becoming extinct.

A weaver giving life to a Patola sari.

The current state of this art is alarming. Some Patola weavers have predicted that the art will vanish within the next 20 years or so. Lack of investment, fewer weavers, and dis-interest on the part of the younger generation of weaving families are reasons for such a prediction. Also cheap imitations are capturing the market.


Dwarka - the Lost Atlantis

Atlantis of India

The western most of Adi Shankaracharya's Four Dhams

Some time ago, my mother wanted me to take her to Dwarka, the last of the Four Dhams of Adi Shankaracharya (we had already visited the other three).

After a failed attempt to invade Athens, Atlantis sank into the ocean “in a single day and night of misfortune”.

Scientists and researchers agree that there was no such island as Atlantis.
Atlantis was a piece of sheer imagination.

But the ancient Dwarka has far too many similarities to the imaginary Atlantis.
This cannot be pure coincidence.
Dwarka is about 4000 years old. Plato wrote about Atlantis only around 360 B.C., that is, much later.
I think the only plausible explanation for the striking similarities is that Plato heard about Dwarka and based his imaginary Atlantis on Dwarka.

The present day Dwarka is a city in Gujarat state in Western India.
The name Dwarka has come from the Sanskrit word “Dwar” meaning door.
Once upon a time, if you were coming from the West, Dwarka was the gate way to India.
Today, Hindus regard it as a gateway to Heaven.

The legendary city of Dwarka was the dwelling place of Lord Krishna.
It is believed that due to damage and destruction by the sea, Dwarka submerged under the sea six times and the modern day Dwarka is the seventh city to be built in the area.

The Dwarkadhish Temple

Dwarkadhish (from Dwarka and Dhish) means Lord of Dwarka.
The temple is dedicated to Lord Krishna.
The city is believed to have been built by Vishwakarma, the celestial architect.
And the ancient temple was built by Sambha, the grandson of Lord Krishna.

The present temple built around the 16th century has a five storey tower.
It is made of limestone and sand.
The structure of the temple is quite complicated.


A 24 metres (84 ft.) long, multicolored flag, decorated with the symbols of the sun and moon, is hoisted on the temple tower every day.
It majestically flitters in the air welcoming the pilgrims.

The temple has two gateways:
· Swarg Dwar (Door to Heaven), through which pilgrims enter, and
· Moksha Dwar (Door to Salvation), through which the pilgrims exit. From the temple, one can see the sangam (confluence) of Gomati River and the Arabian Sea.

Bet Dwarka

The Bet Dwarka temple is built like a palace.
It is believed that Lord Krishna had ruled from here.
An idol similar to the one in Dwarka is kept in Bet Dwarka temple also.
Bet Dwarka can be reached by a short boat ride.

Dwarka is mentioned in the Mahabharata, Bhagavata Purana, Skanda Purana, Vishnu Purana and other ancient scriptures.
According to mythology, Lord Krishna killed Kansa (his maternal uncle) and made Ugrasen (his maternal grandfather) the king of Mathura.
Enraged by this, Jarasandha (King of Magadha), the father-in-law of Kansa, and his friend Kalayavan, attacked Mathura 17 times.

For the safety of his people, Lord Krishna renounced war (hence Krishna is also known by the name Ranchod - meaning one who has left the battle field).
He and the Yadavas decided to shift the capital from Mathura to Dwarka.
They reclaimed land from the sea on the banks of Gomati River and built a well planned city organized into six sectors, residential and commercial zones, wide roads, plazas, palaces and many public utilities.Dwarka also had a good and prosperous harbour.

After Krishna left for his heavenly abode, the major Yadava heads fought among themselves and killed each other.
Arjuna went to Dwarka to bring Krishna’s grandsons and the Yadava women to Hastinapur. After Arjuna left, Dwarka was submerged in the sea.

This is how Arjuna has described the event in the Mahabharata:
"The sea, which had been beating against the shores, suddenly broke the boundary that was imposed on it by nature. The sea rushed into the city. It coursed through the streets of the beautiful city. The sea covered up everything in the city. I saw the beautiful buildings becoming submerged one by one. In a matter of a few moments it was all over. The sea had now become as placid as a lake. There was no trace of the city. Dwaraka was just a name just a memory."

The incident is described in the Vishnu Purana in much the same manner:
"On the same day that Krishna departed from the earth the powerful dark-bodied Kali Age descended. The oceans rose and submerged the whole of Dwaraka."

Atlantis was also wiped out like this!

Archeological Evidence

The search for the mythological Dwarka has been going on since the 1930’s.
The Marine Archeology Unit (MAU) of the National Institute of Oceanography, Government of India started the search for Dwarka in the coastal waters of Dwarka in 1983.
Underwater explorations between 1983 and 1990 revealed the remains of a well-fortified township.
The foundation of boulders on which the city’s walls were erected proved that the land was reclaimed from the sea.
The general layout of the submerged city discovered by Marine Archeology Unit matched the description of Dwarka in the ancient texts.
Further excavations continued till 1994.

Murli Manohar Joshi, then HRD minister claimed that the ruins were 9,500 years old and would lead to a rewriting of world history, crowning a Hindu India as the cradle of civilisation over the claims of Egypt, Mesopotamia and the Indus valley.
The old Dwarka does not appear to be that old.
Scientists estimate the date to be around 2280 B.C.

Scientists have recently discovered a circular wooden structure under the water at a near-shore excavation site off the coast of Jamnagar.
They believe this to be a part of the remains of the lost city of ancient Dwarka.
The wooden structure is well preserved and surrounded by another structure made of stone blocks.
Wood can be more scientifically carbon dated and may help the scientists determine the exact date.

No doubt, influenced by the Tsunami of 2004, a group of ocean scientists have suggested that the ancient city of Dwarka could have been destroyed by a tsunami about 3,000 years ago.

World’s First Underwater Museum

The Marine Archeology Unit submitted an exciting proposal for setting up an underwater museum at Dwarka.
The proposal envisages an acrylic tube on the bottom of the sea through which visitors can view the ruins of the ancient Dwarka.
I have seen such tubes even in Bangkok.

The Government of Gujarat and their Travel & Tourism Department have been working (sleeping would be a better term) on the proposal for over two decades.
This is a unique opportunity to create something unique.
It will attract a lot of tourists.
The work can be outsourced to an international bidder.
This will solve the problem of funding and maintenance.
When completed, it will be the world’s first under water museum.

Reaching There

The nearest airports from Dwarka are:
Jamnagar - 121 Kms.
Rajkot - 225 Kms.
Ahmedabad - 375 Kms.
There are a number of daily flights from Mumbai and other cities.

Recommendation

Visit the real Atlantis, in India itself.
You can also visit lions of India in Gir Forests and the Somnath Temple.


3. Nageshwar Jyotirlinga Temple

Source: Photo by user

Nageshwar Jyotirlinga Temple is a well known temple for Lord Shiva and many myths are associated with its origin. The historic temple is situated between Gomti Dwarka and Beyt Dwarka Island. The temple is included in one of the 12 Jyotirlinga mentioned in Hindu religion. The main attraction of this temple is Nageshwar Mahadev Shiva Lingam’s giant statue. The uniqueness of this temple is how Shiva Lingam faces to the South and Gomugam faces towards the East. After Lord Shiva killed a demon Daaruka, he started residing in the temple, and that’s why it was named as Darukavana. The grand celebration is done on the famous festival Shivaratri.


Hotels In Dwarka

Dwarka is stamped with memories of Lord Krishna who happens to be one of the most important gods of Hindus. They visit this place to bath in religiosity and to see its wonderful temple. This temple was once submerged in the sea and is said to have floated up on its own. Whatever is myth this town draws hordes of tourists and devotees alike making it one of the most visited pilgrimage sites in India. This town lies in the state of Gujrat. Dwarka was the first capital of Gujrat. The name Dwarka means a ‘gateway to heaven’. There are temples that depict magnificence to make you awestruck. You may take a walk around for enjoying the city life and its people.

There is Dwarkadhish temple, Somnath temple and Rukmini temple in Dwarka. These temples are grand and they offer a display of their splendour and splendid architecture. There is an old Lighthouse on the shore of the sea from where you will have a lovely view of this ancient town. You may like Gomti ghat on the banks of Gomti river.

There are hotels in Dwarka which are attractive, grand yet with competitive tariff. There are budget hotels too. You may opt for OYO hotels and rooms that provides economy and comfortable stay. These hotels suit the needs of all kinds of travellers. Dwarka is full of historical places and monuments that will charm you. If you are passionate about life and time of ancient India and if you like to explore their vestiges today, Dwarka is a place for you. Dwarkadhees, for instance, offers a peek into the past. It has prehistoric dimensions on display by its walls and carvings that depict the glory and charm of those hazy times. There is an island here, not far from here, which is believed to have been an abode of Krishna when he lived here.


Theemithi

Theemithi (also spelt Thimithi), or "firewalking", is a Hindu religious practice where devotees walk across a fire pit in exchange for a wish or blessing granted by the goddess Draupadi. 1 Theemithi is part of a larger ceremony stretching over a two-and-a-half month period during which parts of the Mahabharata are re-enacted, totalling up to 18 distinguishable rites. 2

History
Firewalking, a Hindu festival that originated in South India is practised by South Indians in India, Singapore, Malaysia and Sri Lanka as well as in countries that have a large population of South Indians. The goddess Draupadi is the heroine of the Mahabharata, one of the major Sanskrit epics of South India, and is venerated as a common village goddess, or amman (mother goddess). She presides over firewalking in South Indian rituals just like Mariamman who is the principal goddess of Sri Mariamman Temple, and this may allude to why Sri Mariamman Temple is the location for the annual firewalking ceremony in Singapore. 3

Sri Mariamman Temple is also the oldest and largest Hindu temple in Singapore, and has been the venue for Theemithi since 1840. 4 The firewalking ritual itself is actually a culmination of a five-kilometre walk that begins at Sri Srinivasa Perumal Temple on Serangoon Road. 5 The reasons for starting at Perumal Temple is uncertain, although it has been suggested that the location is selected because of convenience. 6

Legends
Theemithi is not just a single rite performed on a particular day. It is in fact the culmination of several religious rituals that re-enact important and auspicious events from the Mahabharata. Theemithi signifies the victory of a war in the Mahabharata that took place between two royal families, the Pandavas and Kauravas, with the former emerging victorious. 7

Draupadi, wife of the five Pandava brothers, and the heroine of the epic, is portrayed as a woman who endures many misfortunes, but remains steadfast to the Hindu principles of righteousness and morality. Similarly, throughout the period of the reading of the Mahabharata, firewalkers and other devotees take on a strict vegetarian diet and abstain from any conjugal involvement. 8

Theemithi is celebrated on a Sunday before Deepavali ("Festival of Lights"). 9 According to the epic, Draupadi, who was gravely humiliated in a public arena by the Kauravas, vowed to leave her hair untied until her perpetrators were duly punished by her husbands. She combed her hair for the first time in 13 years upon seeing the dead bodies of the members of the Kaurava family. 10

The grand finale of the victory was when Draupadi walked on fire, in a ceremony known as Theemithi, to prove her virtuousness and chastity by her adherence to dharma (the path of righteous living according to the codes of conduct stipulated in the Hindu scriptures 11 ). Theemithi, which marks the Pandavas&rsquo victory in the war against the Kauravas, is a re-enactment of the event. In present times, the walking of the pandaram (chief priest) across the fire with the karagam (a sacred, decorated pot), is a symbolic depiction of Draupadi being tested anew following her tribulations. 12 Likewise, it is believed that if her devotees, are as virtuous as her, they will cross the coals unharmed. 13

Rituals
Reading of the Mahabharata
The Theemithi cycle commences from the first Monday of the Tamil month of Aadi which falls around July and August. To commemorate this occasion, a flag with a picture of Hanuman, the Hindu Monkey God and a representation of strength, is hoisted at Sri Mariamman Temple. From this day on, portions of the Tamil version of the Mahabaratha are recited each night until two days after Theemithi. The entire celebration of Theemithi and all other related events commences and ends at Sri Mariamman Temple. Daily prayers and fasting are necessary up to three weeks before the Theemithi ritual &ndash a preparation and purifying process for the acolyte and devotees. 14

Aravan Puja
On the first Monday before the new moon in the Tamil month of Purattasi, which falls between September and October, the Tamils conduct the Aravan Puja, or "prayers for Aravan". These prayers are done in honour of Arjuna's son, Aravan, who sacrificed himself to the goddess Kali to ensure victory for the Pandavas. The head of Aravan is displayed to symbolise the sacrifice, and a trident (three-pronged spear) is placed near the sanctum of Aravan to symbolise the Battle of Kurushektra. 15

Battle of Kurushektra
This commemorates the 18-day battle that culminates in the Pandavas' victory. 16 At the final stages of battle, the king of Dwarka (a city located in the state of Gujarat, north-west India), Lord Krishna, who was a powerful incarnation of Lord Vishnu agrees to be Arjuna's charioteer. 17 To mark this occasion, on the Friday and Saturday prior to Theemithi, a chariot procession takes place around Telok Blangah and Bukit Merah. 18

Keesaka Samharam
Held almost a month before Theemithi, Keesaka Samharam is a significant ritual portraying the slaying of Keesaka, who was the commander-in-chief and brother-in-law of King Virata of Matsya (a kingdom in ancient India). In his attempts to seduce Draupadi, Keesaka gets killed by Bheema, one of the Pandava brothers. 19

Preparation before Theemithi
Ten days prior to the firewalking ceremony, devotees offer their prayers by carrying milk pots, and the women perform kumbiduthandam (the act of prostrating after walking every three steps). 20 The angaprathatchanam (prostration by rolling one&rsquos body) is also performed, but this is done by male devotees only. 21 For the angaprathatchanam, the men strip down to their dhoti (a traditional garment worn by male Hindus, which comprises a long piece of material tied around the waist and extending to cover most of the legs), and roll across the grounds of Sri Mariamman Temple, circling the area for one to three laps of 150 m per round. 22

Theemithi ceremony
A fire pit measuring approximately 3 m in length is dug within the compound of Sri Mariamman Temple. 23 At the end of the pit which holds the burning coals, a smaller pit is also dug for the milk to be poured into. 24 The fire pit is lit by the chief priest with sandalwood pieces. After initial prayers, a yellow string with some turmeric and a spray of margosa, or neem leaf, is attached to the wrists of all those taking part in the firewalking ceremony. 25

The firewalkers, solely men, then do a customary five-kilometre walk from the Sri Srinivasa Perumal Temple on Serangoon Road to the Sri Mariamman Temple on South Bridge Road. 26 Previously, there was a penance ritual involving the use of the chaattai (whip), during which the firewalkers&rsquo hands would be whipped before they proceeded to Sri Mariamman Temple for the firewalk, but this practice has since been banned. 27

At Sri Mariamman Temple, firewood stacked in pits specially dug out for the firewalk are ignited. Thereafter, the fire is sustained, sometimes reaching such high temperatures that the temple walls need to be cooled with water. The Theemithi ceremony begins with the chief priest crossing the fire pit first with a karagam balanced on his head. 28 The devotees follow across the three-metre-long pit, and then cool their feet in a pool of cow's milk at the end of the walk. 29 Milk is sacred to Hindus as it is produced by the cow &ndash a revered animal in Hinduism. 30 The fire in the pit is later extinguished with milk and water sprayed from a firehose. 31

In 1997, about 2,500 persons did the firewalking ritual with about 10 percent of them being Chinese. 32 Typically, more than 20,000 would turn up for the other penance rituals, which start several weeks before the firewalking. 33 In 2015, over 4,000 devotees participated in Theemithi. 34

After the firewalking ceremony, there will be a silver chariot procession of Sri Draupadi Amman in the evening that stops at the following places for devotees to offer prayers: Sri Layan Sithi Vinayagar Temple (Keong Siak Road), Sri Krishnan Temple (Waterloo Street), Little India Arcade (Serangoon Road), Sri Veerama Kaliamman Temple (Serangoon Road), Sri Srinivasa Perumal Temple (Serangoon Road), and Sri Vadapathira Kaliamman Temple (Serangoon Road). 35 Although firewalking is the apex of the whole ceremony, the Theemithi cycle only comes to a complete close two days later. On this day, the final chapter of the Mahabharata is read and the victory of the war is depicted by the lowering of the battle flag and the crowning of Yudishtra, the eldest Pandava brother. 36

Author
Suchitthra Vasu

References
1. Lee, T. (1995, October 6). Test of faith to draw over 2,000. The Straits Times, p. 28. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
2. Babb, L. A. (1974). Walking on flowers in Singapore: A Hindu festival cycle. Singapore: Dept. of Sociology, University of Singapore, pp. 1, 5. (Call no.: RCLOS 294.538 BAB-[SEA])
3. Babb, L. A. (1974). Walking on flowers in Singapore: A Hindu festival cycle. Singapore: Dept. of Sociology, University of Singapore, pp. 1, 2&ndash3. (Call no.: RCLOS 294.538 BAB-[SEA])
4. Penance an act of faith and courage. (1998, October 13). The Straits Times, p. 28 Leong, W. K. (1998, October 8). Walking on fire for his dead parents. The Straits Times, p. 27 2,512 devotees to walk on fire. (1997, October 24). The Straits Times, p. 32 Hindu fire-walkers urged to perform rites earlier. (1997, October 10). The Straits Time, p. 52. Retrieved from NewspaperSG Sanmugam, E., et al. (Eds.). (2009). Sacred sanctuary: The Sri Mariamman Temple. Singapore: Sri Mariamman Temple, p. 15. (Call no.: RSING 294.535095957 SAC-[SRN])
5. Lee, T. (1995, October 6). Test of faith to draw over 2,000. The Straits Times, p. 28. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
6. Babb, L. A. (1974). Walking on flowers in Singapore: A Hindu festival cycle. Singapore: Dept. of Sociology, University of Singapore, p. 22. (Call no.: RCLOS 294.538 BAB-[SEA])
7. Babb, L. A. (1974). Walking on flowers in Singapore: A Hindu festival cycle. Singapore: Dept. of Sociology, University of Singapore, pp. 28&ndash29. (Call no.: RCLOS 294.538 BAB-[SEA]) Singapore fire-walking ceremony tomorrow. (1937, October 17). The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
8. Babb, L. A. (1974). Walking on flowers in Singapore: A Hindu festival cycle. Singapore: Dept. of Sociology, University of Singapore, pp. 28&ndash31. (Call no.: RCLOS 294.538 BAB-[SRN])
9. Babb, L. A. (1974). Walking on flowers in Singapore: A Hindu festival cycle. Singapore: Dept. of Sociology, University of Singapore, p. 12. (Call no.: RCLOS 294.538 BAB-[SRN]) Firewalkers fulfil vows despite rain. (1989, October 17). The Straits Times, p. 19 800 in fire-walking ceremony. (1978, October 24). The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG Hindu Endowments Board. (2014). Hindu festivals. Retrieved 2017, March 15 from Hindu Endowments Board website: https://heb.org.sg/hindu-resources/hindu-festivals.aspx
10. Babb, L. A. (1974). Walking on flowers in Singapore: A Hindu festival cycle. Singapore: Dept. of Sociology, University of Singapore, p. 19. (Call no.: RCLOS 294.538 BAB-[SEA]) Indian Mirror. (2017). Siginificance of fire walking. Retrieved 2017, February 17 from Indian Mirror website: http://www.indianmirror.com/culture/indian-folklore/Fire-Walking.html
11. Das, S. (2016, October 5). What is dharma? Retrieved 2017, February 17 from About.com website: http://hinduism.about.com/od/basics/a/dharma.htm
12. Babb, L. A. (1974). Walking on flowers in Singapore: A Hindu festival cycle. Singapore: Dept. of Sociology, University of Singapore, pp. 22&ndash23, 24&ndash25. (Call no.: RCLOS 294.538 BAB-[SEA]) Hindu&rsquos fire-walking ordeal. (1930, October 14). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884&ndash1942), p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
13. Babb, L. A. (1974). Walking on flowers in Singapore: A Hindu festival cycle. Singapore: Dept. of Sociology, University of Singapore, pp. 24&ndash25, 30. (Call no.: RCLOS 294.538 BAB-[SEA])
14. Babb, L. A. (1974). Walking on flowers in Singapore: A Hindu festival cycle. Singapore: Dept. of Sociology, University of Singapore, pp. 5, 6, 9, 31. (Call no.: RCLOS 294.538 BAB-[SEA]) Leong, W. K. (1998, October 8). Walking on fire for his dead parents. The Straits Times, p. 27. Retrieved from NewspaperSG
15. Babb, L. A. (1974). Walking on flowers in Singapore: A Hindu festival cycle. Singapore: Dept. of Sociology, University of Singapore, p. 9. (Call no.: RCLOS 294.538 BAB-[SEA])
16. Babb, L. A. (1974). Walking on flowers in Singapore: A Hindu festival cycle. Singapore: Dept. of Sociology, University of Singapore, p. 12. (Call no.: RCLOS 294.538 BAB) Hindu&rsquos fire-walking ordeal. (1930, October 14). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884&ndash1942), p. 5. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
17. Das, S. (2016, May 12). Who is Krishna? Retrieved 2017, February 17 from About.com website: http://hinduism.about.com/od/lordkrishna/a/krishna.htm Battle between right and wrong. (1986, December 12). The Straits Times, p. 12. Retrieved from NewspaperSG Ancient Origins. (2015, October 18). Dwarka: The home of Krishna is a gateway to heaven and an underwater city. Retrieved 2017, February 17 from Ancient Origins website: http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-asia/dwarka-home-krishna-gateway-heaven-and-underwater-city-004227
18. Colourful chariot procession takes Hindu deity to devotees in various districts. (1994, October 23). The Straits Times, p. 22 Lee, T. (1995, October 6). Test of faith to draw over 2,000. The Straits Times, p. 28. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
19. Indian Mirror. (2017). Siginificance of fire walking. Retrieved 2017, February 7 from Indian Mirror website: http://www.indianmirror.com/culture/indian-folklore/Fire-Walking.html Babb, L. A. (1974). Walking on flowers in Singapore: A Hindu festival cycle.Singapore: Dept. of Sociology, University of Singapore, p. 11. (Call no.: RCLOS 294.538 BAB-Internet Sacred Text Archive. Retrieved from http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/m04/m04022.htm Hindu Endowments Board. (2014). Fire walking festival 2016. Retrieved 2017, March 15 from Hindu Endowments Board website: https://heb.org.sg/fw2016.aspx
20. Babb, L. A. (1974). Walking on flowers in Singapore: A Hindu festival cycle. Singapore: Dept. of Sociology, University of Singapore, pp. 17, 18. (Call no.: RCLOS 294.538 BAB-SEA]) Hindu fire-walkers urged to perform rites earlier. (1997, October 10). The Straits Time, p. 52. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
21. Lee, T. (1995, October 6). Test of faith to draw over 2,000. The Straits Times, p. 28 Hindu fire-walkers urged to perform rites earlier. (1997, October 10). The Straits Time, p. 52 Simon, S. (1987, October 14). Paying homage to a goddess. The Straits Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
22. Leong, W. K. (1998, October 8). Walking on fire for his dead parents. The Straits Times, p. 27 Simon, S. (1987, October 14). Paying homage to a goddess. The Straits Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG Babb, L. A. (1974). Walking on flowers in Singapore: A Hindu festival cycle. Singapore: Dept. of Sociology, University of Singapore, p. 17. (Call no.: RCLOS 294.538 BAB- <>
23. Morning fire walking this year. (1999, September 24). The Straits Times, p. 53 Retrieved from NewspaperSG. National Heritage Board. (2015, June 26). Sri Mariamman Temple. Retrieved 2017, February 7 from Roots website: https://roots.sg/Content/Places/national-monuments/sri-mariamman-temple
24. Babb, L. A. (1974). Walking on flowers in Singapore: A Hindu festival cycle. Singapore: Dept. of Sociology, University of Singapore, p. 22. (Call no.: RCLOS 294.538 BAB-[SEA])
25. Babb, L. A. (1974). Walking on flowers in Singapore: A Hindu festival cycle. Singapore: Dept. of Sociology, University of Singapore, pp. 21, 22. (Call no.: RCLOS 294.538 BAB-[SEA])
26. Morning fire walking this year. (1999, September 24). The Straits Times, p. 53 Penance an act of faith and courage. (1998, October 13). The Straits Times, p. 28 Lee, T. (1995, October 6). Test of faith to draw over 2,000. The Straits Times, p. 28 Babb, L. A. (1974). Walking on flowers in Singapore: A Hindu festival cycle. Singapore: Dept. of Sociology, University of Singapore, p. 22. (Call no.: RCLOS 294.538 BAB-[SEA])
27. Morning fire walking this year. (1999, September 24). The Straits Times, p. 53 Leong, W. K. (1998, October 8). Walking on fire for his dead parents. The Straits Times, p. 27. Retrieved from NewspaperSG Babb, L. A. (1974). Walking on flowers in Singapore: A Hindu festival cycle . Singapore: Dept. of Sociology, University of Singapore, pp. 21&ndash22. (Call no.: RCLOS 294.538 BAB-[SEA])
28. Babb, L. A. (1974). Walking on flowers in Singapore: A Hindu festival cycle. Singapore: Dept. of Sociology, University of Singapore, pp. 23, 24. (Call no.: RCLOS 294.538 BAB-[SEA])
29. Babb, L. A. (1974). Walking on flowers in Singapore: A Hindu festival cycle. Singapore: Dept. of Sociology, University of Singapore, p. 24. (Call no.: RCLOS 294.538 BAB) Singapore fire-walking ceremony tomorrow. (1937, October 17). The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
30. Srivatsa. (1987, October 16). You name it, it&rsquos from the epics. The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
31. Babb, L. A. (1974). Walking on flowers in Singapore: A Hindu festival cycle. Singapore: Dept. of Sociology, University of Singapore, p. 24. (Call no.: RCLOS 294.538 BAB-[SEA])
32. Leong, W. K. (1998, October 8). Walking on fire for his dead parents. The Straits Times, p. 27. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
33. Leong, W. K. (1998, October 8). Walking on fire for his dead parents. The Straits Times, p. 27. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
34. Fire-walking ceremony Thimithi in Singapore. (2015, November 2). Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved from Factiva via NLB&rsquos eResources website: http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/
35. Hindu Endowments Board. (2014). Fire walking festival 2016. Retrieved 2017, March 15 from Hindu Endowments Board website: https://heb.org.sg/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Firewalking_2016.pdf
36. Babb, L. A. (1974). Walking on flowers in Singapore: A Hindu festival cycle. Singapore: Dept. of Sociology, University of Singapore, pp. 26&ndash28. (Call no.: RCLOS 294.538 BAB-[SEA])

The information in this article is valid as at 2015 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.


Saturday, January 24, 2009

23000 yrs old Evidence of Dwarka city found underwater

In the photo (courtesy ASI) above, an underwater archaeologist of the ASI examines an ancient structure off the shore of Dwaraka a circular structure on the shore at Dwaraka fragment of an ancient structure found underwater remains of an ancient structure in the forecourt of the Shri Dwarakadhish Mandir (temple).

Over 23000 years old evidences of God Shri Krishn's Dwarka/Dwarika/Dvarika Nagri have been found which proves that Sanatan Vedic Dharm is the oldest civilization in the world. Civilization started and developed in the holy land of Aryavrat/Bharat (misnomer: India) since eons together. The researchers and scientists have also busted the Mythical fictitious theory of Aryan Invasion in many video evidences given below.

Today is JANMASHTAMI DAY - the birthday of Lord Krishna. On this day we remember the celestial and immortal message of Lord Krishna given by him to Arjuna on the battlefield of Kurukshetra. Bhagavad Gita contains the guiding principles for every Hindu, nay every human being regardless of his religion, every day for every moment of his life. Lord Krishna told Arjuna on the battlefield of Kurukshetra: 'All paths lead to ME'. It is because of this universality that it has found favour with all Classes and Schools for centuries. Nowhere perhaps, with the possible exception of Mathura Vrindavan in UP is Janmashtami celebrated with that kind of elemental passion which it arouses in the State of Gujarat. The ancient and timeless Krishna Temples at Dakore in Kheda District and Dwaraka in Jamnagar District of Gujarat have attracted throngs of devotees of Lord Krishna for thousands of years.

Lord Krishna is better known in India's cultural and religious history as the King and Emperor of Dwaraka. According to ancient Hindu mythology, Dwaraka was a new country founded by the Yadava clan of chiefs who fled from the Surasena Kingdom due to fear from the king Jarasandha of Magadha. It was the brainchild of Vasudeva Krishna, the great personality of the Dwapara Yuga. The territory of Dwaraka includes the Dwaraka Island, many neighbouring islands like the Antar Dwipa and the mainland area neighbouring the Anarta Kingdom, making it similar to Greece having many islands and a mainland forming its territory. The kingdom was situated roughly in the north-western region of Gujrat state. Its capital was Dwaravati (near Dwarka, Gujarat). The Mahabharata does not mention Dwaraka as a kingdom but rather as the capital city of Yadavas who ruled the Anarta Kingdom. It was also known as Dwaravati. It was also a port-city, having trade relations with many sea-faring nations. The name Dwaraka, in Sanskrit means a gate or a gateway. It could be that this ancient port-city was a gateway for foreign sea-faring kingdoms into the Indian mainland and vice versa.

Dwaraka is one of the seven Holy Cities Ayodhya, Mathura, Haridwar, Benares, Kanchi, Ujjain and Dwaraka . Dwaraka's majesty and beauty have been described by many poets and writers, saints and sages of ancient India. It is referred to as Golden City in Srimad Bhagavad Gita, Skanda Purana, Vishnu Purana, Harivansha and Mahabharata. It was the capital of Lord Krishna's Kingdom. All the Islam-embracing, Christianity-coveting and Hindu-hating perverted pseudo secularists in the Government of India and all the political parties would be shocked to know that Dwaraka is not just a legend or the product of a figment of imagination but a real, concrete and terrestrial truth. Dwaraka was a well-planned city with a modern and technologically advanced harbour suitably designed to deal with the marine traffic of large ships entering the port.

One of the verses in the Bhagavada says: 'The yellow glitter of the golden fort of the Dwaraka City in the sea throwing yellow light all round looked as if the flames of Vadavagni came out tearing asunder the sea'. Then came the deluge and Dwaraka 'A City of Gold' vanished under water. Around 1500 BC, the whole Western course of India disappeared along with Lord Krishna's Capital City of Dwaraka. This is how it was described by Vedavyasa in the Mahabharata: 'The sea, which had been beating against the shore, suddenly broke the boundary that was imposed on it by nature. The sea rushed into the City of Dwaraka. It coursed through the streets of the beautiful city. The sea covered up everything in the city. I saw the beautiful buildings becoming submerged one by one. In a matter of a few moments it was all over. The sea had now become as placid as a lake. There was no trace of the city. Dwaraka became just a name just a memory'.

The ruins of ancient Dwaraka city have been found under the sea following recent oceanographic studies conducted near the modern temple-city of Dwaraka. The first Archaeological excavations at Dwaraka were done by the Deccan College, Pune and the Department of Archaeology, Government of Gujarat in 1963 under the direction of an outstanding Archeologist of Ancient India H.D. Sankalia. It revealed the existence of many artefacts, hundreds of centuries old. The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), conducted a second round of excavations under the direction of Dr S R Rao, a world renowned Underwater Archeologist. Dr S R Rao is to the discovery of the ancient town of Dwaraka, what Isaac Newton is to the Law of Gravitation or Albert Einstein to the Theory of Relativity.

Between 1983 and 1990, the well-fortified township of Dwaraka was discovered, extending more than half mile from the shore. The township was built in six sectors along the banks of a river. The foundation of boulders on which the City's walls were erected proves that the land was reclaimed from the sea. What is amazing is that the general layout of the City of Dwaraka described in the ancient texts agrees with that of the submerged city discovered by the Marine Archaelogical Unit. (MAU) of The Archaelogical Survey of India (ASI), which carried out its work under the guidance and supervision of Dr S R Rao.

The discovery of Dwaraka by Dr S R Rao confirms that the descriptions found in the text of the Mahabharata and other important Sanskrit texts regarding Dwaraka are true. It also means that the Mahabharata is NOT A MYTH but an important source of information for studying the ancient history of India. T R Gopalakrishnan has succinctly summarised the importance of the excavations and discovery of Dr S R Rao: 'The strongest Archaeological support comes from the structures discovered under the sea- bed off the coast of Dwaraka in Gujarat by the pioneering team led by Dr S R Rao, one of India's most respected Archaeologists. An Emeritus Scientist at the Marine Archaeology Unit of the National Institute of Oceanography, Dr Rao has excavated a large number of Harappa sites including the Port City of Lothal in Gujarat. In his book THE LOST CITY OF DWARAKA published in 1999 he writes about his undersea finds. It has set at rest all doubts expressed by historians about the historicity of Mahabharata and the very existence of Dwaraka City. It has greatly narrowed the gap in Indian history by establishing the continuity of the Indian Civilization from the Vedic Age to the present day'.

Thirty copper coins were also found in the excavation area. The structures found on land belonged to the medieval period. "We have also found 30 copper coins. We are cleaning them. After we finish cleaning them, we can give their date," he said.

Dwaraka is a coastal town in Jamnagar district of Gujarat. Traditionally, modern Dwaraka is identified with Dvaraka or Dvaravati, mentioned in the Mahabharata as Krishna's city. Dwaraka was a port, and some scholars have identified it with the island of Barka mentioned in the Periplus of Erythrean Sea. Ancient Dwaraka sank in sea and hence is an important archaeological site.


Aashya mayro

How and when our universe was born or came into existence is a big question for all. Some say our universe came into existence by a big bang and some don’t believe in big bang theory. One thing we all agree upon that creation of universe was not done in one day.

UNTOLD HISTORY OF INDIAN MYTHOLOGY WITH HUMAN EVOLUTION PROCESS. YOU WILL BE AMAZED

As we can understand that lord Vishnu took avatars to protect existence of human at every stage of evolution. That’s why we call lord Vishnu our savior.

DOES GOD EXIST. find answers to the unanswered.

Every bit I have matured in life I have noticed feeling of
some supernatural force or energy, helping me in some or the other manner… Dark energy covering such a huge portion of universe, has been totally unknown, undiscovered, and no scientist have any clue about the depth of dark energy. some believe dark energy is controlling all the galaxies and as the days pass all the galaxies r going apart from each other and the speed with which each one of the galaxies r repelling with each other has increased from the time of big bang… practically speaking the speed with which the galaxies r repulsing with each other should have decreased through time but it’s really surprising to know that the speed of repulsion between galaxies have accelerated through time… is it because of the unknown powers of the dark energies or its some supernatural power controlling our universe… Only for those who are not convinced by sprit theory can please explain me something about near death experiences which I know you would have for sure heard by some of your relatives, friends or any experienced person would have known. Is something like this possible? Something called life after death? Or near death experience? What would you call these experience? even science can't deny it entirely about the people experiencing these near death experiences…Most of the individual going through these experience witnesses a same kind of story to tell… that is feeling lifted or flying and going through a tunnel like thing towards the light…Many of them have their relatives standing on the final stage of the tunnel waiting for them…Many experience getting a message from almighty as in my grandmother’s case she had a near death experience…Doctors declared her as dead and after 5 minutes she again came to life telling us what form of Message she received…It was not her time to leave her physical structure, it was somebody else instead of her, women staying near her mansion with the same name… And also she will be alive only for 1 more year, and that’s what happened, she was right about it. People who don’t believe in God would believe in one thing that every individual’s brain have a part to be called as subconscious mind. Scientist now believes that our subconscious mind possesses a lot more power that we could ever imagine. Whatever we think or see or listen gets stored in our brain subconsciously.

SECRETS OF DWARKA. could it be the real Atlantis?

or guiding us at times and alter our ability to doubt about the existence of god…something of such sort happened to me when I began reading Indian mythological books and finding logical solutions of queries arising in my intellect.

Being a Hindu I have been bought up by listening to narratives of the epic of Ramayana and Mahabharata. Every bit of the narration made my mind closer to the thought of
existence of almighty. But as I have grown, I have been doubting and one question always came to my thought, not every bit of the epic story told to me could be true or could it be?

Arriving at my doubts clear by knowing about the existence of a city thousands of years ago to be true leaves me with one more doubt that is everything true written in the great epic about flying machines (VIMANS) and technology used like laser beams and latest technology of weapons like nuclear bombs were invented thousands of years ago and from whom did they get such knowledge? Can everything be true?

Recently i was reading about Atlantis and that its a myth. but i strongly feel that Atlantis was real and its no where else but in dwarka thousands of years ago.


Watch the video: ITHIHASA - A 100000 Years Story of BHARATH INDIA - Documentary English subtitles