MARTIN PM-7- 1923 - History

MARTIN PM-7- 1923 - History

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History of Martin Automatic Fly Reels

In searching for parts for my two old Martin automatic fly reals, I got to wondering about the history of these reels, and thought someone here might be able to refer me to some information. The first reel I bought new from Sears in the late 1940s or 1950s, and used it mainly to fish for bluegill in college and later with my son. I liked the reel because it could easily take up the slack very quickly as I retrieved the fish. I finally quit using it years ago, because one of the nuts holding the two sides together came loose. More recently I have been using manual reels for bluegill fishing with my grandsons. I don't like the manual reels nearly as much, because I always seem to wind up with line tangled about my feet when I retrieve the fish.

I was told years ago that my reel was actually a Martin reel, and that apparently was correct. It has a Sears stamping plus US Patent Numbers 2-175-756 and 2-301-732 (registered to A. D. Maury).
The image for Patent 2-301-732 matches my Sears reel closely, except that mine has nuts holding the screws in place, whereas the diagram appears to have them secured by threads in the plate. A picture of my Sears reel is here:
An apparently identical reel is currently listed on EBay at

The second reel I bought recently on EBay. It is a Martin 48A carrying three patent numbers, including 2-630-977. The diagram for 2-630-977 appears very similar. My reel is pictured here:

I have searched for A. D. Maury and Martin Reels, but mostly just get listings of reels for sale. I am more interested in reading the history of how these reels evolved over the years. I plan to give the two reels to my two grandsons, and would like to be able to give their history.

It is hard to find any information on Martin Automatic Reels. Martin is oldest active reel maker in the US since 1884. As to the automatic fly reel, George Cook, an inventor from Louisville, Kentucky, received a patent for his automatic fishing reel in 1899. The reel was called the "Automatic Fishing Device.

Sears had many manufactures making reels for them. So it was common to have patents under different name on reels sold by Sears.

i got one for you i have a martin dog exerciser has that made in mohawk ny uas number 30 pat 2-630-977 i cant find nothing out about this reel it looks like the auto fly reel if you or any one can help me out i wood thank you

MARTIN PM-7- 1923 - History

Vintage Guitars Info's
Vintage Martin Guitars and Ukes
Vintage Guitar Info.
Collecting vintage Martin guitars and ukes. General specifications, serial numbers, model information. Private vintage guitar collector.
Contact the vintage guitar info guy. Torch peghead inlay and
"snowflake" fingerboard
inlays as used on 1914 to
1938 style 45 Martins.

Martin Flat Top Model Info:

Martin Arch Top Model Info:

Martin Ukulele Model Info:

"What Type of Martin Do I have?"

    Before much can be determined about a Martin guitar, several things must be identified:
    1. The year it was made (using the serial number, which exists on all Martins 1898 and later).
    2. The type of guitar (flattop, archtop, uke, etc).
    3. The body size (for flattop guitars generally O, OO, OOO, OM, D, etc.)
    4. The body style (for flattop guitars generally 15, 16, 17, 18, 21, 28, etc.)
    5. Oringinality (have any of the parts, such as the bridge or tuners, been changed or modified?)
    6. How does it play?

First Determine the Year.
On Martin guitars, this is pretty easy. Every Martin guitar made in 1898 and later, there is a serial number inside the guitar. This number can be used to determine the exact year of manufacture. See the serial number section below for details.

A 1947 Martin 0-17T
Tenor guitar (4 strings).
Note the nicely grained
mahogany top. Tenor guitar
are not very collectible
though, as they were sold
from the 1930s to the 1950s
mostly to transition banjo
players to guitar!

    Next Determine the Type of Guitar.
    Most Martin guitars made are "flat top" models. That is, they have a round sound hole in approximately the center of the flat top of the guitar, with a "pin" style bridge. Martin also made some archtop models during the 1930s. These can have a round sound hole, or two "f" style sound holes (one on each side of the top of the body), and have an arched top, with a "trapeze" style bridge. Martin also made ukuleles. If a guitar only has four strings (and is not a ukulele), this is known as a Tenor guitar. Uke size instruments with ten string are Tiples. Uke size instruments with eight strings are Taropatches. Martin also made mandolins, which have eight strings. To summarize:
    • 4 Strings: a ukulele or tenor guitar.
    • 10 Strings: Tiple.
    • Uke size with 8 strings: Taropatch
    • 8 strings (not a Uke): Mandolin.
    • Archtop: an arched top to the guitar with either a round soundhole, or two "f" holes on either side of the body. Trapeze style bridge. Made only during the 1930s.
    • Flattop: a flat top to the guitar, and a single round sound hole under the strings. Pin style bridge.

      Flat Top Guitar Body Size.
      Martin flat top guitars were made in various sizes. The bigger the guitar body, the better and more collectible the guitar. This is why guitar body size is so important to identify on a Martin flat top guitar. Starting in October 1930, Martin stamped the guitar body size right above the serial number inside the guitar. This makes identifying body size on October 1930 and later guitar very easy. For flat top guitars made before October 1930, the easiest way to figure out the body size is to use the flat top guitar body size chart below. Body sizes, pretty much from smallest to biggest, include O, OO, OOO, OM, D.

    Martin Instrument Styles.
    Nearly all Martin instruments come in different styles. The higher the style number, the more fancy (and collectible) the instrument. Again starting in October 1930, Martin stamped all flat top guitars with the style number, directly after the body size (and above the serial number). Style numbers can range from 15 to 45. A letter can follow the style number too, giving some additional info about the instrument. For example, a "T" after the style number indicates a Tenor guitar. See the general specs section for a full list of these suffixes.

    Determine the Originality.
    Originality of an instrument is very important. Modifications (any modifications), are a bad thing in the eyes of a collector. This will greatly influence value. Modifications can often be determined by looking at the model specs for a particular year guitar in this web page, and compare to your instrument. On flat top martins, the most common modifications are a replaced bridge, replaced tuners, or replaced frets.

    Finally, How does the Instrument Play?
    On Martin guitars, this is a really big deal. Martins all seem to have a problem with the "neck set" on many of their guitars before 1970. High string action is the result, making the guitar very difficult to play. This can only be fixed correctly by a "neck set" (removing the neck on the guitar, and refitting the neck at a slightly increased angle, which lowers the string action). If done correctly, this does not affect the value of the guitar (and in fact can make it more valuable, as the guitar is much more playable). Generally speaking, most players would agree if the "string action" is more than 3/16 inch (5 mm) at the 12th fret, the guitar needs a neck set. This measurement is taken from the bottom of the low-E string, to the top of the 12th fret.

    Regarding truss rods, all vintage Martin instruments post-1934 have *non-adustable* truss rods (T rod). This means the neck better be straight, otherwise an expensive repair will be in order. To check neck straightness on a guitar, first tune the guitar to pitch. Then hold the low-E string down at the 1st and 14th frets. Note the distance between the bottom of the low-E string, and the 7th fret. You should be able to put a medium guitar pick in this space. Any more, and the neck is "bowed". Any less, and the neck is "back bowed". Repeat this with the high-E string (the same results should be seen if not, the neck has a "twist" to it).

    Introduction and Collectibility.

      Martin has been making some of the best flat top acoustic guitars since the mid 1800's. Martin's other lines of instruments (electrics, archtops, mandolins) is not nearly as desirable or collectible as their flat top models. Because of this, any models other than flat tops (such as Martin's archtops and electrics) are not very collectible.

    Brazilian rosewood on a 1965 D-28. Note the rich
    color and wavey figuring which is typical of
    Brazilian rosewood. Indian rosewood, as used
    from late 1969 and later, is much paler in color
    not nearly as rich looking. Indian rosewood is also
    very straight grained, without the figuring and
    waveyness of Brazilian rosewood. Acoustically, they
    sound nearly the same.

    Flat top Martins from the 1840's to the 1920's represent the earliest generation of the modern flat top design. They have great workmanship, but small bodies designed for gut strings only. Because of this, these models have limited appeal and hence are less collectible than steel string models.

      Flat tops from 1945 to 1969 are considered good quality and have good sound, although they are not as collectible as the 1920's to 1944 steel string models. This is largely due to the change in bracing and materials Martin started using in 1945. Rosewood models of Brazilian rosewood are most collectible from this era. This is because Brazilian rosewood was basically unavailable since 1970 due to export problems. Because of this, these models are considered more collectible.

    Martin D-35 from the 1970's.
    Note the Indian rosewood's color
    is much lighter and not as rich
    as Brazilian rosewood. Also the
    grain is much straighter and boring.
    This three piece back was used on
    D-35's to allow Martin to use
    narrower rosewood that would
    otherwise go to waste.

      Flat tops from 1970 to present are considered to be excellent utility instruments, but are not collectible. Staring in 1976, Martin has been undergoing many changes with numerous reissues, new models, limited editions, etc. Workmanship has improved greatly from the early 1970's, and Martin is now producing some of its best guitars in over 20 years. While not currently collector's items, these intruments have excellent workmanship, sound, and playability.

    Classical guitars by Martin are equal in craftsmenship to their steel string models. But unfortunately, their sound and feel is not what classical players seem to want. Therefore they do not have the collectability of the steel string models. I group Martin classical models to include the "NY" series and gut string models made from the 1930's and later.

    1965 Martin 00-21 NY model. A classical model
    because of the open peghead style, no fingerboard
    inlays, and bracing for gut (nylon) strings only.
    The Style 21 model is a combination of the
    Style 18 and Style 28 models: The body uses
    rosewood (like a 28), and a style 18 neck
    (with no "ice cream cone"). This particular
    model has nice Brazilian rosewood. The back of
    the (style 18 like) neck can clearly been seen
    with no "ice cream cone" volute.

      Acoustic archtop by Martin, again, have craftsmenship that matches their flat top instruments. But as with classical model, Martin archtops do not have the look, feel, or sound of traditional archtop models as defined by Gibson or Epiphone. They may be quite rare, but they are not collectible, especially compared to Martin flat tops.

    Ukuleles by Martin are considered amoung the best ukes made. Though ukes in general aren't particularly valuable, Martin ukes are worth more than most other makes.

    Tenor guitars (4 strings) by Martin have little to no collectibility. Tenor guitars were marketed as a way to get banjo players in the 1930s to the 1950s to convert to guitar. There is very little need for this today, hence these four string guitars have little value.

    Other Brands Made by Martin.

    • Bacon: a few made for Bacon Banjos in 1924.
    • Belltone: fifteen guitars, ten mandolins and twelve Style 3k ukes were made for Belltone.
    • Bitting Special: Martin made some mandolins for this Bethlehem, PA teacher in 1916 to 1919.
    • Ditson: in 1917 to 1919, and 1923 to 1930, Martin made some guitars for the Ditson company in Boston. Early models only have a "Ditson" stamp, later models have both the "Ditson" and "Martin" stamps. The 1923 to 1930 models have Martin serial numbers. Prior to this, 483 guitars of the original 1917 to 1919 series have been documented.
    • Foden: In 1912 to 1917, Martin made guitars for concert guitarist William Foden. These are similar to the standard Martin models, but have simple soundhole rings and a 20 fret fingerboard (instead of 19). Made in sizes 0 and 00, the styles were similar to Martin's Style 18, 21, 28, and a pearl trim model. Only 27 of these guitars have been documented to date.
    • Jenkins: Martin made Style 1 and 2 ukes for this Kansas City mail order company.
    • Olcott-Bickford: 32 guitars made for this guitarist.
    • Paramount: Around 1930 Martin made about 36 guitars with strange construction. A style 2 size body mounted into a larger rim and back of rosewood, small round soundholes around a "lip" that joins the outer rims to the inner rims, no soundhole in the top, 14 frets clear, dot fingerboard inlays to the 15th fret, rounded peak peghead with standard Paramount banjo peghead inlay, banjo-style tuners, four or six strings.
    • Schoenberg: In 1987 to 1994, Martin made some guitars similar to their OM-18, OM-28 OM-45, some 12 fret 000 models, and a few D models. The last Schoenberg/Martin was made in October 1994, serial number 541742.
    • S.S. Stewart: Martin made ukes for this company in 1923 to 1925.
    • Rolando: In 1916 to 1918 Martin made 261 guitar (numbered 1 to 261), and some later guitars with standard Martin serial numbers.
    • Vega: Martin bought Vega Banjos in 1970 and moved production to their property in 1971. In 1979, Martin sold the Vega name. Some guitars were made under the Vega name during this period (but they mostly made banjos).
    • Weymann: Around 1925 Martin made some Ukes for this company, but no guitars.
    • Wurlitzer: In 1922 to 1925, Martin made 297 standard Martin models (but with a simplier soundhole rosette) for Wurlitzer. These have the Wurlitzer name and model number on the back of the peghead.

    As you can see, Martin did not make very many guitars for other companies. So the chance that your non-Martin guitar is really a "Martin" is very unlikely!

    Martin Serial Numbers (How to Find the Year).

      All Martin guitars since 1898 (except solidbody electrics from the 1970s, basses, and tiples) are numbered in consecutive order. Ukuleles do not have serial numbers. Mandolins use a different serial number system than guitars. Martin guitar serial numbers start at 8000 in 1898 because Martin estimated they made 8000 instruments before 1898.

    Model Numbers stamped above the Serial Number starting in 1930.
    Starting in October 1930, Martin also stamped the model number just above the serial number. Martin model numbers are straight forward too. The first set of characters are the body size. Next there is a "-". The last set of numbers are the ornamention style.

    For example, "OO-28" stamped above the serial number tells use the body is "OO" size (14 5/16" wide for a 14 fret model, 14 1/8" wide for a 12 fret model), and the ornamention style is "28" (rosewood body, ice cream cone style neck).

    Left: The model and serial numbers, as seen through the sound hole on the neck block of this 1950 D-28. Prior to October 1930, the model is NOT stamped on the neck block (you have to figure it out yourself!).
    Right: The model and serial numbers, as seen through the sound hole of this 1944 D-18, serial number 90067. Notice the "1" in the "18" does somewhat look like a "2". This confuses a lot of people who think their style 18 guitar is a style 28. Also the "D" is sometimes confused for an "0".

      On round hole martin guitars, the serial and model numbers are stamped on the neck block inside the instrument. The number can be seen by looking inside the sound hole. Look at an angle towards the neck. All f-hole Martin archtops have their serial and model numbers stamped on the inside center of the backstripe, roughly under the shadow of the bridge (and best seen from the bass side "f" hole).

    • 439xx to 44362: October 1930 first time both the body size & style number stamped on neckblock above the serial number (exact serial number change unknown).
    • 57305 = T frets first used and T bar first used (1934)
    • 59044-61181 = Martin stamp in back of peghead discontinued (1935)
    • 72740 = Change in nut width on 14-fret 000 and D models from 1 3/4" to 1 11/16" (late 1939), non-slotted peghead models. Style 17 models with 14-fret body may have changed earlier.
    • 80585 = Ebony neck reinforcement started to be implemented during WW2 (1942)
    • 83107 = Last pre-WW2 style 45 guitar (1942).
    • 89926 = According to Martin, this is the approximate last scalloped braced guitar made (late 1944). Though some models have been seen after this number with scalloped braces, and before this number with tapered braces. (For example #90014 appears to be the last D28 with scalloped braces, and D-28 #88112 had tapered braces.)
    • 90021 = Snowflakes on D28 discontinued (1944). This is an approximate serial#.
    • 98223 = Last style 28 guitar made with Herringbone trim (early 1947).
    • 99992-100240 = Last style 28 guitars made with a "zipper back" center seam (mid 1947).
    • 196228 = Last guitar made at North street factory June 25, 1964. (First day at new factory July 6, 1964)
    • 197207 = Bridge pin holes moved back 1/16" (1964).
    • 200601 = short saddle bridge (1965).
    • 205251 = 102C Grover machines on all "D" guitars (1965).
    • 211040 = Boltaron bindings on D-28 and D-35 (1966).
    • 212100 = Boltaron bindings on D-18 (1966).
    • 213775 = Boltaron rosettes (1966).
    • 215253 = New tape strips on sides (1966).
    • 216736 = Bridge pin holes moved to center (1966).
    • 217215 = Tortoise guards discontinued (1966).
    • 220467 = Last hand stamped serial/model numbers (1967).
    • 224079 = Kluson K324 tuners on all style 18 models (1967).
    • 226969 = Grover v100 tuners on all 0,00,000 models (1967).
    • 228246 = Square truss rod bar on D models (1967).
    • 235586 = Rosewood bridgeplates on all guitars (1968).
    • 242454 = Larger rosewood bridgeplates on all guitars (1969).
    • 254497 = Last style 28 guitar made with Brazilian rosewood (late 1969).
    • 254498 = East Indian rosewood introduced (1969, a model D-21).
    • 255717 = First D-41 model with Indian Roseood.
    • 256366 = First D-45 model with Indian Rosewood.
    • 350287 = Plastic saddles on D-18 models (1975).
    • 355357 = Plastic saddles on D-28 models (1975).
    • 360970-365831 = Rosewood vertical sidestrips (1975).
    • 370976 = Micarta nuts and saddles (1975).
    • 447004 = Self-adhesive pickguard trial (1984).
    • 447501 = Last glued-down pickguard in regular production (1984).
    • 453181 = Adjustable truss rods gradually implemented (1985).
    • 478093 = Maple bridgeplates on all guitars (1988).
    • 737277 = Last HD-28LSV with an Adirondack top (2000). Sitka spruce was used in regular production thereafter.

    Martin Flat Top Body Sizes.

      "Size" is the body size designation that Martin uses, as stamped inside the guitar on the neck block starting in October 1930. All measurements are in inches. "Frets" represents the frets clear of the body. "Introduced" was the year of introduction. All sizes are in inches.

      Certainly the most desirable of the Martin body size is the 000, 0M, and D sizes. Many consider the 000 (and OM, which is essentially a 000) to be the ultimate guitar size, where others feel the "D" size is the best. It's personal preference. There are some interesting facts though about the 000 and OM sizes. (In Martin's 1934 catalogue, any flattop guitar that had a 14-fret neck was named an "Orchestra Model", while the older 12-fret design was named a "Standard Model".)

    The OM Body Size.
    Martin's OM, or "Orchestra Model", available from 1929 to 1933, has a rare combination of features. The joining of a long-scale (25.4") neck with a small body makes it an extremely responsive and playable guitar. In many ways the OM models were the first truly modern flattop guitars. They were the first Martins to have necks with 14 frets clear of the body. The OM has a wide neck (1 3/4" as opposed to the dreadnought's 1 11/16") which appeals to fingerstyle players. The string spacing is slightly greater at the bridge than on other models too, although not as wide as a classical guitars. The neck shape of old OMs is a bit unique too, although this is variable since each neck was handmade. OMs have a wide but thin backshaped V-shape which is very comfortable. Finally, the OM's smaller body size makes the guitar easy to hold, especially in the seated position. Compared this to the D dreadnought which is larger both in body depth and width (dreadnought players seem to use straps and stand up so the guitar's size is less of a factor).

    The OM model came about due to Perry Bechtel, who was a virtuoso plectrum banjo player. Perry came to see the Martin family in the early summer of 1929. He wanted Martin to make him a guitar which he could easily adapt his banjo style (remember by the late 1920s guitar was the hot instrument, replacing the banjo). He requested 15 frets clear of the body and a 27" scale in Martin's largest standard body size (which at that time was the 000, with 12 frets clear of the neck). The 27" scale would retain the fret spacing of the plectrum banjo, and 15 frets clear of the body would closely resemble the length of a banjo neck.

    Martin began with a 000-size guitar, which had 12 frets clear of the body. They rejected the 27" scale idea, as this would have been impractical since the high string tension on a guitar would have made the instrument hard to play. Instead they used a 25.4" scale length. To accommodate Bechtel's request for 15 frets clear of the body, they squared the body's shoulders to add 1 5/16" to the clear part of the fingerboard. This allowed 14 frets clear of the body. Since they felt aesthetically the bridge should remain halfway between the center of the soundhole and the endblock, there really was no way to make the guitar have 15 frets clear. The bottom bout was reshaped slightly to match the new shape of the upper bout (note when the 000 went to 14 frets in 1934 it retained this initial OM body shape).

    To make the OM more suitable for banjo players, the neck was made narrower and less V-shaped than previous Martins. The fingerboard was narrowed from the then-standard 1 7/8" to 1 3/4" at the nut. In addition to make the OM more banjo-like and to give it a distinctive look, banjo style tuning pegs were used. To do these, the headstock had to be made solid, instead of slotted. Previously Martin headstocks had all been slotted with tuners attached to the side mounted on a single plate for three tuners. No single-unit guitar tuners were available, so banjo pegs were a natural.

    In late 1929, Martin built a prototype batch of six OM guitars. The very first of these had pyramid bridges and no pickguard. Martin soon realized that with the vigorous strumming required in a band setting, a pickguard would be required. Hence all OMs after the prototype batch had a small teardrop-shaped pickguard. The new OMs were not highly sucessful. They sold, but not as well as Martin had hoped. In 1933 the OM designation was dropped and was now called the "000" model. But infact the 1933 "000" models were the same as the 1933 "OM" models, retaining the OM body style and 14 fret neck. Then in 1934 the standard 000 models were modified to the shorter 24.9" scale (for unknown reasons, as the 12 fret 000 body had a 25.6" scale length its inception in 1902 to its demise in 1931). Yet the OM's longer scale was a major factor in the OM's tone. The strings on an OM must be tuned to a higher tension to get concert pitch. This extra tension translates into more drive on the top, hence providing more volume and tone. The OM's scalloped braces and a small maple bridgeplate give the OM a great sound. Although these features were common to other Martin models of the time, the OM's top brace under the fingerboard was missing. This design is unique to OMs making the top very lightly braced. This does lead to some problems with cracks in the upper bout along the side of the fingerboard, but it also contributes to the great sound of the OM models.

    Martin Flat Top Production Years by Model.

      This should give you an idea of when the majority of the production for any one model occured (majority meaning more than 5 instruments per year). Note this does not mean a model can not exist outside of these years - it certainly can. Just these are the years recorded by Martin in their ledgers. Note this list (for the most part) does not go past 1969.
      Serial Number and Size/Style Number Stamps
      • 1898 to present: flat top serial number stamped inside on neck block.
      • Oct 1930 to present: flat top model number stamped inside on neck block around serial number rant 439xx to 44362 (exact serial number change unknown).
      • All Martin f-hole arch tops have the serial and model number on the inside center backstripe.
      • Some letter suffixes clarify styles:
        • A = ash
        • B = Brazilian Rosewood
        • BK = Black finish
        • C = classical
        • DB = Deep body
        • E = electric
        • FMG = Figured Mahogany
        • G = Gut string classical
        • GE = Golden Era
        • GM = Grand Marquis
        • H = Hawaiian style
        • K = Koa wood back & sides
        • K2 = Koa wood back, sides and top
        • L= Left handed
        • LE= limited edition
        • M = Mahogany (of if a "J" prefix is used, Jumbo M body size)
        • MB = Maple Binding
        • MP = Morado back and sides and low profile neck
        • N = Non-low profile neck (when low profile necks were standard)
        • P = Plectrum (pre-WWII), low profile neck (1985 to present) or Fishman Prefix pickup
        • Q = Old style non-adjustable truss rod neck (1985-present)
        • R = Rosewood back and sides
        • S = special order (pre-WWII) or 12 fret neck (1967 to present)
        • SE= signature edition
        • SW = Special Wurlitzer
        • T = tenor
        • V = vintage specs
        • W = Walnut

        The "Martin" name stamped in the back of a
        1920's Martin. This model had no peghead decal
        declaring it was a Martin, so this stamp sufficed
        on the back of the peghead.

          Martin Stamps, Peghead Logos, Labels.
          Older 1800s Martins are a challange to date (since they don't have a serial number like 1898 and later Martins). A "New York" stamp does not immediately suggest that the Martin guitar is from the 1830s for example. To accurately date pre-1898 Martins you must be familiar design and ornamentation appointments and the changes that took place in each model throughout the 1800s. Most useful though is the stamp, but you can only use the stamp on the INSIDE of the body on it's center backstrip (visible through the soundhole) to date a guitar. And even then you can only date to a period (and not to an exact date). For example if it says on the center back strip, "C.F. Martin, New York", then the guitar is pre-1867. If it says, "C.F. Martin & Co., New York", it is between 1867 and 1897. Note 1860-1890s Martins have a date (year of manufacture) penciled on the underside of the top. Check with a mirror, looking just below the soundhole and between the braces.

        • 1833-1840s: Paper label "Christian Frederick Martin" or "C.F. Martin".
        • 1836: Some with paper label "Martin & Schatz".
        • 1838: Some with paper label "C.F. Martin and Bruno".
        • 1838: Martin manufacturing moved from New York to Nazareth PA.
        • 1840s: Some with paper label "Martin & Coupa".
        • 1833-1866: Stamp "C.F. Martin, New York" on inside backstrip.
        • 1867-1897: Stamp "C.F. Martin & Co., New York" on incide center backstrip.
        • 1880s-1900s: Date often written in pencil on the bottom side of the top of the guitar by the factory foreman (can be seen with a lighted mirror).
        • 1898-1935: Stamp "C.F. Martin & Co., Narareth Pa" on back of peghead & center backstrip.
        • 1922-1923: Martin makes guitars for Wurlitzer. Some lack Martin serial numbers or any markings of any kind.
        • Late 1931: "CF Martin & Co, Est. 1833" silkscreened on front of peghead with NO black border around letters (the silkscreening process was a single gold color). This appeared on OM models.
        • 1932: OM-18 and OM-28 got peghead Martin decals, replacing the gold silkscreened logo.
        • 1933: Nearly all Martin models had a "Martin" peghead decal.
        • Mid 1934: "CF Martin & Co, Est. 1833" decal on front of peghead with black border around the letters (the decal used both gold and black colors). Silkscreen logo no longer used.
        • Mid 1935: Stamp "C.F. Martin & Co, Narareth Pa" on back of peghead no longer used (in the 1932-1934 era both the front silkscreen and back stamp are used.) The back peghead stamp was discontinued between serial number 59044 and 61181. (Interestingly the neck block stamping with model serial numbers started between Oct.1 and Oct.15th, 1930.)
        • 1940-1942: Some style 15 and style 17 models have a tortoise shell celluloid peghead veneer (instead of the normal rosewood veneer), with a decal "Martin" logo. Seen mostly in 1941, the model 0-15 seems to this option the most. This celluloid peghead veneer is the same as the pickguard material.
        • Mid 1935-1963: Stamp "C.F. Martin & Co, Narareth Pa" on center backstrip only, as seen through the soundhole.
        • 1961-present: "MADE IN U.S.A." designation added on the center backstrip. This appears to have started around serial number range 174xxx to 175xxx.
        • Mid 1960s: the bar across the "F" in "CF Martin" on the peghead decal changes from a straight bar to a curved bar (like a tilda on a keyboard).

        1934 Martin 0-17 peghead with a silkscreened logo.

        1934 Martin 00-18 peghead with a decal logo.

        1942 Martin 0-15 celluloid peghead veneer with a decal logo.
        Note the lack of tuner ferrels because of war-time metal shortages.

          Tops (Style 18 and higher)
          • 1919: Martin experimented with Sitka spruce tops on some guitars. (but Adirondack red spruce was the standard top material).
          • 1927: top gets a bit thicker to accomodate steel strings. Note this is not a "for sure" rule.
          • pre-1946: Adirondack red spruce (1946 guitars can have either Adi Red Spruce or Sitka).
          • 1946 to present: Sitka spruce (darker than Adirondack). The change to Sitka happened on the larger "D" models first (in very early 1946). It took Martin a little while to use up all the smaller pieces of older Adirondack red spruce, hence the change to Sitka happend slower on the smaller body models. This is also the reason multiple piece Adi red spruce tops are sometimes seen on 0,00,000 bodies in 1946.
          • 1950s: occasional Adirondack red spruce. In 1952 or 1953, rumor has it Martin bought a large supply of Engelmann spruce from government surplus. Though Martin preferred Adirondack Red Spruce, it was no longer available after the mid-1940s because all of the large trees had been decimated. Martin would have liked to switch from Sitka to Engelmann because he felt that Engelmann was closer to Adi Red Spruce than Sitka was. He could not however find anyone who was cutting Engelmann commercially, so they went back to Sitka.
          • Present: some with Engelman spruce.

          "Split Diamond" style inlays as used
          on pre-1945 style 21 and 28 guitars.

            Rosewood Back and Sides (Style 21 and higher)
            • pre-late 1969: Brazilian rosewood (ended with serial# 254497).
            • 1969: slab-cut Brazilian rosewood instead of the more traditional and desirable (in terms of appearance, strength, and warp-resistance) quartersawn rosewood.
            • late 1969 to present: Indian rosewood. First Indian Rosewood model was a D-21 serial number 254498. Note even though the cut off for Brazilian rosewood was serial number 254497, some high-end models like the D-45 and D-41 did appear after this serial number with Brazilian rosewood bodies. For example:
              254498: first Martin with Indian rosewood (D21).
              255037: D12-45 with Indian rosewood.
              255717: first D-41 model with Indian Rosewood.
              256366: first D-45 model with Indian Rosewood.
            • Occasionally (and rare) Brazilian rosewood shows on on random models in 1970 (probably from leftover rosewood). For example 265783 and 265941 (both 1970 D-28 models). Also some D-35 models with mixed woods in the 3-piece back like number 258962 which had a Brazilian rosewood center wedge in the back.
            • Brazilian rosewood is more figured than the very straight grained Indian rosewood. Also Brazilian is usually a dark redish brown, where Indian is a light brown.

            Back removed from a Martin showing the neck block and two top braces.

              • 1840s to 1938: Scalloped "X" bracing, position of the cross of the "X" bracing one inch from edge of soundhole, aka "forward braced" or "advanced bracing".
              • 1927: bracing dimensions and top thickness increases to accomodate steel strings. Note this is not a "for sure" rule.
              • Late 1938: Scalloped "X" bracing with "rear shifted bracing", where position of the "X" moved further than one inch from soundhole (exact measurement varies, for example: a 1941 D-18 has 1 7/8" distance). So the X-braces were moved about 7/8" further down. And the tone bars were angled more parallel with the length of the guitar and further apart. These late-1938 to late-1944 guitars had deeper scalloped braces than the 1938 and prior forward or advanced braced guitars. This gives the late 1938 to late 1944 Martin guitars improved bass response (don't let anyone tell you that war-time Martins are not as good as pre-1939 Martins!)
              • mid-1939 Popscicle bracing on D body sizes. See the above picture for what the popsicle or T-6 or upper transverse graft brace is. The popsicle brace was added to the underside of the top of the guitar, below the fingerboard. The brace was added to help prevent top cracks alongside the fingerboard. Since the first D body size was made in about 1934, problems obviously came about and Martin added the brace by 1939. The brace does not appear in pre-1939 Martin D-sizes, but transitioned in around 1939, and is present in all 1940 and later D models. Without the popsicle brace, the top is attached only by the strength of the spruce fibers and a 1/2" x 2" glue area where the top overlays the soundhole #1 brace. With the popsicle brace there is an additional 1" x 2" glue surface directly under the fingerboard. Unfortunately the popsicle brace can deaden the sound of the upper bout area of the soundboard, and the popsicle brace doesn't always prevent the top from cracking along the fingerboard either. As people search for why the old Martins sound so good, they examine every aspect of them and the popsicle brace usually enters the conversation. Here's some data on popsicle braces:
                1938 D-18 #71539 rear-shifted X-brace, no popsicle brace.
                1939 D-28 #71968 rear-shifted X-brace, no popsicle brace.
                1939 D-18 #72618 1 3/4" neck width, no popsicle brace.
                1939 D-18 #72702 1 3/4" neck width, popsicle brace (stamp 23 May 1939).
                All 12 fret Martins have the popscicle stick brace too.
              • 1939: The #1 brace inside near the neck block changes from 5/16" wide to 1/2" wide, making it roughly twice as wide. This happened at the same time as the popscicle brace addition. The neck block thickness was also reduced by 1/4". About the same time neck width reduced from 1 3/4" to 1 11/16" at the nut, and the bridge spacing reduced from 2 5/16" to 2 1/8".
              • Late 1944: According to Martin, the last scalloped braced Martin in late 1944 was approximately serial number 89926. Though some models have been seen after this number with scalloped braces, and before this number with tapered braces. (For example #90014 appears to be the last D28 with scalloped braces, and D-28 #88112 had tapered braces.)
              • Late 1944 to 1976: Heavy straight "X" bracing (not scaloped), position of the "X" still further than one inch from soundhole (exact measurement varies, for example: a 1958 000-18 has 1 3/4" distance, and a 1967 000-28 has 1 13/16" distance).
              • Late 1944 to about 1949: the bracing was tapered. This stopped in the late 1940s, and was a progressive thing. So unlike scaloped bracing that had a definate endpoint, tapered braces evoloved into "straight" braces by 1949. This is why 1945-1949 Martins are still highly regarded as "better" than their 1950s counterparts, but not as good as the 1944 and prior scalloped braced guitars.
              • 1948: Bridgeplates are no longer notched into the X-braces.
              • 1949-1976: Straight braces (neither scalloped or tapered.)
              • Circa 1960: X-bracing moves back up to 1 1/2" from soundhole.
              • 1964: Hot hide glue phased out with the move to the new factory. Hot hide glue continued to be used to attach the top to the body.
              • 1968: Small maple bridgeplate (1 3/8") replaced by small rosewood bridgeplate.
              • 1969: Small rosewood bridgeplate replaced with large rosewood bridgeplate (3 1/4").
              • 1976 to present: Scalloped bracing re-introduced on some models (HD-28, D-45 in 1985, D-41 in 1987). Also one inch "X" bracing used again in the late 1980s on many "D" models.

              The pre-1945 braces have a scooped or "scalloped" profile, making them lighter in design and weight. Functionally this means a greater vibrating surface (the guitar's top), and provides stronger bass response. Why did the Martin Company change from the lighter scalloped braces to heavier braces? The answer is in the strings. Many guitarists of that time were using heavier gauge strings, and these heavier strings were tough on the lightly constructed scalloped-braced Martins (especially on D-models with the long 25.4" scale). Martin didn't make a heavier guitar to withstand the extra string tension, so they compensated by adding more rigid (non-scalloped) braces to the guitar's top.

              The insides of two Martin guitar tops, showing scalloped
              braces (top) versus non-scalloped straight braces (bottom).
              Pics are showing the underside of the top, right beneath
              the bridge (notice the bridge plate) and looking towards
              the end block. Note the straight braced picture has a
              Rosewood bridge plate, meaning this guitar is 1968 or later.

              1946 Martin D-28 with tapered braces:
              1955 Martin D-28 with straight braces:

                Flat Top Bridge Plates
                A maple bridge plate is the most desirable. The use of rosewood for the bridge plate starting in April 1968 is largely to blame for the lack of "good sound" on 1968 to 1988 Martins.
                • 1927: bridgeplate becomes thicker on most models to accomodate steel strings. Note this is not a "for sure" rule.
                • 1932: bridgeplate were enlarged from 1" to 1 3/8" on all belly bridge styles (style 18 and higher). Style 17 (mahogany top) models that didn't get a belly bridge stayed with the smaller 1" bridge plate.
                • Pre-April 1968: Maple bridge plate on all models. Serial number 235585 was the last maple bridgeplates on all guitar models (4/68).
                • April 9, 1968 to 1987: Rosewood bridge plate on all models starting with serial number 235586. This had a somewhat dramatic change in sound for all Martin models, and is really the end-point in collectibility for many people.
                • 1969: with serial number 242454 a larger rosewood bridge plate was used on all guitars. This made sound even worse (but probably made the Martin repair & warranty department happy as the guitars were less prone to bridge damage).
                • 1976: HD-28 uses maple bridge plate.
                • 1988 to present: Maple bridge plate re-introduced on all models with serial number 478093.

                Flat Top Pin Bridges.
                Left: Pre-1965 style belly bridge with a "long saddle" which extends past the "dips" in the bridge. Note the "snake eye" bridge pins with tortoise shell dots inlayed into them. These are used on style 28 models.
                Right: Rectangle style bridge with "pyramid" ends.
                Not all pyramid bridges have straight saddles.

                Ivory pyramid bridge on a 1885 0-34 guitar (pic by PhotoRC) .

                  Flat Top Pin Bridges
                  As a conservative approach to using steel string, one thing is pretty much for sure if a Martin came from the factory with a Belly bridge, it is braced for steel strings. If it has a rectangle bridge (and was made before 1929), the bracing needs to be checked by a qualified repair person to determine if the guitar's bracing can handle steel strings. My personal opinion is if it's a style 18 or higher and has a rectangle bridge and was made before 1930, it's not really made for steel strings. Though 1927 is generally thought of as the year when most models were braced for steel strings, 1927-1929 models could be braced for either steel or gut strings. So before putting on steel strings on a 1927-1929 Martin, have it check out by a good repair person. They will check the top's firmness, bracing dimensions, and bridge plate thickness.

                • 1920s: Martin transitions away from pyramid long bridge to standard rectangle bridge on style 18 and style 28 models. Happens gradually with the style 17 series never having a pyramid style bridge or transitioning earlier to the rectangle bridge. Note that all pyramid bridges have a straight saddle.
                • 1927: Generally thought of as the year all models were braced for steel strings. Note this is not a "for sure" rule.
                • Pre-1929: All size 1 and larger guitars, from any year, have 6" long pyramid bridges. All size 2 or 2 1/2 Martins have 5 3/4" to 5 7/8" long pyramid bridges. Most pyramid bridges before 1900 are roughly 7/8" wide, and most after 1900 are 1" wide. The average length of the wings on most pyramid bridges is roughly 1 3/8" During the 1880's and 1890's, however, there is more variation, as much as from 1 1/4" to 1 1/2" On the earlier 7/8" wide bridges, the wings have a very long, narrow, elegant appearance, with a gentle curve to the inside angles of the pyramids, that looks nothing at all like the harsh angles found on many copies. There is no difference between the dimensions of ivory and ebony bridges from the same period.
                • 1929 and earlier: Rectangle bridge or pyramid bridge (on some style 28 and higher models). By late 1929 the pyramid bridge was no longer used and the rectangle bridge was only used on style 17 and lower. Some OM models were the last to use the pyramid bridge as late as 1930.
                • Late 1929 to present: Belly bridge, style 21 and higher, about 3/8" tall and 1.4" wide. Style 18 and lower retain the rectangle bridge.
                • 1930/1931: Belly bridge on style 18 guitars. Style 17 and lower (mahogany topped models) retain the rectangle bridge.
                • 1939: Neck width reduced from 1 3/4" to 1 11/16" at the nut, and the bridge spacing reduced from 2 5/16" to 2 1/8".
                • 1965: Shorter bridge slot on all bridges, known as the "drop-in" bridge saddle. Pre-1965 bridges are known as "long saddle" bridges.

                "Braced for Steel Strings."
                When talking about 1920s Martin guitars, you hear people say this a lot (especially if they are trying to sell you a guitar!) Unfortunately there is no definative way to tell if a 1920s Martin is capable of handling steel strings. The term, "braced for steel strings", though is inaccurate. A better way to put it would be, "built for steel strings". For a 1920s Martin to be built for steel strings there were several small changes - the top, braces and bridge plate are all slightly thicker. Can you see this inside the guitar? For the most part, no, unless you really know what you are looking for (frankly I can't tell). So how do you know if a 1920s Martin is built for steel?

                A 1927 Martin 0-21 with a Rectangle bridge and steel strings.
                Notice the steel strings are not pulling the top/bridge.

                  First the lower line models were built for steel strings first. Like the style 17 in 1922, and the style 18 in 1924. Pretty much all models were built for steel by 1927-1929. But unfortunately there was no definative serial number or time line for any 1920s Martin style. This makes it difficult to determine if any particular 1920s Martin guitar is really built for steel strings. Martin didn't just implement steel string design at any one definative point. It was a transition, and apparently a very slow transition. And special orders for gut or steel complicated things.

                The conservative way to tell if a Martin is built for steel strings is the bridge. If it's a style 18 or higher and has a belly bridge (and does not have 'banjo' tuners like early OM models), it's pretty much built for steel strings (can't use this indicator on style 17 and lower as these models never used a belly brige until the 1950s). Why? Since Martin didn't implement the belly bridge until late 1929, it's a very conservative indicator that the guitar is built for steel. The belly bridge was the last thing they did to make steel strings usable on their guitars (though certainly many models with rectangle bridges can handle steel strings too.) They started to implement the belly bridge in 1929, and all style 18 models and higher had the belly bridge by 1930. Therefore using the belly bridge as a steel string indicator is a very safe idea (assuming the bridge is original and it's not an OM). Now can steel strings be used on pre-1930 models with a pyramid or rectangle bridge? Maybe, but it's just not as definative and caution should be heeded ("silk and steel" strings would be a good and safe compromise). Note early OM models with banjo style tuners generally should be strung up 'lightly'.

                • Martins made before 1922 were not built for steel strings.
                • Most Martins built after 1927 should be able to handle light gauge steel strings.
                • Style 17 built 1922 and later should be able to handle light gauge steel strings.
                • Style 18 built 1924 and later should be able to handle light gauge steel strings.
                • Style 21 and Style 28 guitars built after 1927 should be able to handle light gauge steel strings.
                • OM styles with banjo tuners should be evaluated with care (light guage steel strings at most).
                • All styles built 1934 and later should be able to handle medium gauge steel strings.

                Keep in mind that the year the guitar was built is no guarantee that any individual guitar is in the optimum condition required to handle steel strings. Any Martin should be evaluated with care, and a top that lifts significantly in the bridge area or this is not firm, is a sign that lighter strings should be used. Or that the guitar is in need of attention by a qualified repair person.

                Conpensated Bridges.
                With the advent of belly bridges in 1931, Martin started to compensate their saddle placement. What this does is make for better string intonation. However early pyramid bridge have straight saddles, mounted 1/8" back from the front edge of the bridge. (with the center of the pin holes 3/8" from the back of the saddle.) The 1931 to 1933 belly bridges have a compensated saddle placed 1/8" from the front of the bridge on the treble side, and 3/16" from the bass side. Then on belly bridges in the mid 1930s Martin moved the bass end of the saddle back to 1/4" from the front of the bridge.

                Bridge Pins.
                Bridge pins prior to 1945 did not have string slots. There is a slight seam seen in the round head (hard to see but it's there). The bridge pin round head diameter from 1931 until mid-1939 was about 0.320". In mid-1939 the round head was reduced to about 0.300", and this size was used until the unslotted pins ended in 1945. The shaft size was slightly increased at this time too. The pre-1939 style pins have a more bulbous head, where the 1939-1945 style's head is more slender. The pin taper is about 5 degrees, and the diameter under the collar is about 0.225". The pins are made of hard celluloid. Several companies have reissued these old style pins.

                Rectangle Bridges.
                After steel strings were the norm, rectangle bridges were still used on the lower end Martin models and smaller body models. Bridges don't last forever unfortunately, and the rectangle models are easy to reproduce. Hence here's some specs that may help you determine if a rectangle bridge is original. A Martin rectangle bridge should be 6" long and 1" (or slightly less) wide. The top of the bridge should have close to a 16" radius lengthwise. The tallest point of the bridge should be between the A & D strings, and the lowest at the high E string. The wing thickness is about .095".

                • pre-1928: no pickguard.
                • 1928 to 1967: Tortoise grain celluloid pickguards glued directly to the top, clear finish then applied over top and pickguard. Due to extreme shrinkage of celluloid and lacquer, this often causes a "pickguard crack" in the top. Pickguards became "standard" in 1931 on most models, but some martin guitars had them as early as 1928. The OM series was the first model to consistently have a pickguard in 1930.
                • 1967 to 1980's: Black plastic pickguard glued directly to the top, clear finish then applied over top and pickguard. Due to shrinkage of the plastic pickguard and lacquer (though the black guard didn't shrink as much as celluloid), this often causes a "pickguard crack" in the top too.
                • 1984 to present: Tortoise grain celluloid pickguard, double-sided taped to finished top with no finish on pickguard (to accelerate shrinkage). Pickguard is now independent from the top and "gives" and can move without cracking the top.

                Left: Herringbone binding as used prior to 1947 on styles 21 and 28 guitars.
                Right:"Zipper" backstrip as used on pre-1947 style 28 models. Also note the nice Brazilian rosewood used.

                  Binding Material
                  • pre-1918: Elephant ivory binding on styles 28 and higher.
                  • 1918 to 1966: Celluloid grained "Ivoroid" binding on styles 28 and higher.
                  • 1934: Black plastic replaces wood on styles 18, 21.
                  • 1936 to 1966: Tortoise grain binding used on some styles 18, 21.
                  • 1966 to present: Black plastic binding on styles 18, 21.
                  • 1966 to present: White non-grained (Boltaron) binding on styles 28 and higher. Black binding replaced tortoise binding on style 18 models.
                  • 1860 to early 1947: Herringbone binding on styles 21, 28 (last serial# 98223).
                  • 1947: Zig-zag "zipper" backstrip discounted on style 28 (last serial# 99992).
                  • early 1947 to 1980's: Black/white stripped binding on styles 21, 28.
                  • 1980's to present: Herringbone binding on styles 28.

                  The herringbone purfling (binding) was discontinued on style 28 guitars in 1947. The binding was made in pre-World War II Germany and was not replaceable from American sources. When the stockpile ran out in early 1947, D-28s (and all style 28 guitars) were bound with a new decoration scheme of alternating black and white celluloid (originally used on the Martin archtop C-2 model). Hence the term "herribone D-28" or "bone 28" is heard amoung Martin collections, signifying a pre-1947 style 28 Martin guitar.

                  In the fall of 1964, it's generally accepted that hide glue was replaced with white polyvinyl acetate PVA glue (Elmer's) after the move to the new Martin build facility. (But hide glue was still used until the mid-seventies for gluing tops to the rim and in some other situations.) A notation was written in Grant Remaley's personal memos on Sept 29, 1964 indicating Martin was starting to use "cold" glue. It is generally thought the type of glue used does affect the sound of the guitar. Starting some time in the 1980s Martin started switching from white glue to yellow aliphatic resin (titebond).

                  • pre-1900: French polish.
                  • 1900: Thin shellac.
                  • 1919: Semi-gloss shellac.
                  • 1923: High-gloss shellac.
                  • 1926 (some models), 1929 (most models): Clear nitrocellulose lacquer. Style 18 models fully switched over to nitro cellulose lacquer by 1929. The transition from shellac to lacquer started in 1926 with O-17H.
                  • 1930: All styles have nitrocellulose lacquer finish.
                  Left: The neck set on a 1930's Martin guitar. Note the "T" style frets.
                  Right: Bar style frets. Later "T" style frets stay in the fingerboard better because of the "barbs" or tangs on the side of the "T".

                  • 1830s to 1916: two piece cedar neck with grafted peghead and "long" volute (which gave more glue surface for the separate peghead). Some models also used a three piece neck with no volute and a separte "ice cream cone" neck heel and clock style key fastening method.
                  • 1916 to present: One piece mahongany neck. Style 28 and higher now have a shorter volute (which is mostly ornamental).
                  • 1929 (OM models): 14 fret neck introduced on flat tops.
                  • 1929-1934: All the new 14 fret neck models have a 1 3/4" wide neck width at the nut (prior to this all 12 fret neck models had a 1 7/8" wide neck width).
                  • 1932: Some style 17 and 18 models transition to 14 frets clear of body with non-slotted peghead.
                  • 1934: 14 fret neck standard on all flat tops models except the 000-21 (it became 14 fret in 1938).
                  • Slot Peghead vs. Solid Peghead (steel string models): Most models converted from a 12 fret slot peghead to a 14 fret solid peghead around 1934 (except the OM series, which went 14 fret in 1929/1930 and the style 17 and 18 models which were available in 14 fret style in 1932). Basically if the guitar has a 14 fret neck, it will have a solid peghead. If it has a 12 fret neck, it will have a slot peghead. Note there were some post-WW2 gut string and classical models (i.e. 0-16NY) and some post-WW2 special order steel string guitars (i.e. 1967-1993 D-18S) which always have a slotted peghead.
                  • Late 1934: "T" frets (aka tang frets) replace Bar frets on flat tops. (Most other guitar makers had stopped using bar frets much earlier.) Martins Hawaiian style guitars retain bar frets until at least 1938. The first Martin model to use T frets was the 00-17, introduced on a lot of 00-17 guitars #57305-57329 in 1934. Initially the first T-frets were special ordered by Martin to contain 30% nickel ("normal" fret wire is 18% nickel, 65% copper and 17% zinc). The higher percent of nickel, the harder the fret wire. This special 30% nickel fret wire was ordered from the Horton-Angell Company (the inventor and patent holder for barbed alternating "fish hook" T frets) on 8-31-1934 in an 100 pound lot, along with 100 pounds of "normal" 18% nickel fret wire. It's unclear if Martin ever used 30% nickel fret wire after this, because it was more expensive and not the norm. The same instruments also introduced the "T" neck reinforcement bar. Shortly thereafter T frets were standard. (Like with steel strings in 1922, Martin tried these innovations first on inexpensive low-end models to minimize financial damage in case the experiment was a failure.)
                  • 1939: switch from 1 3/4" wide nut-width to the narrower 1 11/16" at serial #72740 for all non-slotted peghead 000 and D models.
                  • After 1916, only Style 28 and higher has an "ice cream cone" style volute on the back of the one-piece neck. Styles 21 and lower lack this.
                  • All years: Martin painted the neck and body of their flattop guitars apart and separately when made. After both are dried and rubbed out, then the neck is glued to the body. Because of this, there should never be any finish in the seam between the neck and body.
                  • 1928-ish: Ebony neck reinforcement under fingerboard for strength.
                  • Late 1934: Steel "T" bar. Thickness varies, but generally speaking both sections of the T is 0.125", width and height is 0.525" (kind of like Flexible Flyer sled runners). The bar is glued into the neck with Hide glue.
                  • 1942: Ebony neck reinforcement under fingerboard (war time shortage of steel)
                  • 1945/1946: Steel T bar again used sparatically (varies between ebony and steel during these years.)
                  • 1947: Steel T bar.
                  • 1967: Square steel bar.
                  • 1985: Adjustable (inside body) steel truss rod.

                  Left: Back of a post-war 000-28 Martin. Note the Grover G98 or
                  Waverly tuners (pointy base plates), and the "ice cream cone" volute.
                  Middle: Back of a D-18 war-time Martin. Note the tuners
                  have plastic buttons, as used during WW2. Also no
                  "ice cream cone" volute on styles 21 and lower models.
                  Right: Back of a 1946 D-28. Note the different open
                  back Grover G-93 tuners, and the "ice cream cone" volute.

                  1934 Martin 000-18 with Grover G98 tuners. Note the riveted gear and the base plates
                  that are not pointy (cut flat), and the slot head mount screws.

                  Original slotted peghead Grover tuners on a 1931 Martin 00-21.

                    I am not completely sure this tuner info is completely accurate. Sorry about that. Remember as a general rule Grovers were used on style 21 and above, and Klusons were used on style 18 and lower. There are some exceptions (like during 1940 to 1945, and pre-1930s). On pre-war Grover tuners, there are basically two types used on Martins: G-93 (round button 'butterbean') and G-98 (scalloped buttons, aka "Sta-Tite"). Both came in 6:1 and 12:1 tuning ratios, with 12:1 coming about in 1938 (and replacing the 6:1 ratio). The post-1938 12:1 ratio Grovers can be always be identified since they combine the thin seamed tuner buttons with the long pointed baseplate, and the tuner gear is screw mounted. The 1938 and prior Grover G98 tuners have a thin seamed button combined with the a square tipped baseplate, and always had the 6:1 ratio. They also had the riveted tuner gear. Ater WW2 the G98 was reintroduced with pointy baseplates and a screw mounted gear, and this was copied by Waverly, Grover, Schaller, etc after the war. Also Martin used original Waverly tuners (open back, rounded base tips, butterbean buttons) after WW2 on 00 and 000 and some D guitars style 18 (and some 28) in the late 1940s and 1950s.
                    • 1916: Gear wheel above worm gear, ivoroid buttons.
                    • 1925: Gear wheel below worm gear, ivoroid buttons.
                    • 1929: On slotted peghead style 21 and above used Grovers. These had an hourglass shaped string shaft with the shaft fitting into a metal bushing in the inner (center) wall of the peghead. The tuner gears were peaned to the shafts rather than screwed. The tuner buttons had the familiar Grover clover shape.
                    • 1929: Grover planetary banjo tuners on OM models only. Discontinued 1931 in favor of the open back standard Grover tuner.
                    • 1931: Solid peghead guitars had open back Grover tuners with no gear adjustment screw and thin metal scaloped buttons (seam in middle of button). Grover base plate tips are squared off.
                    • 1935: Archtop models C-3 and F-9 have gold Grover G-98 tuners with an engraved "M" on the butterbean buttons. 1936: Grovers have pointy tipped base plates.--> 1937: Open back Grover tuners with gear adjustment screw and heavy metal round thick buttons (no visible seam).-->
                    • mid 1939-mid 1940: On style 28 and higher sealed back Grover tuner, heavy metal thick buttons (no visible seam).
                    • 1940: Grover G-98 open-back tuners with "butterbean" buttons used on many models from style 18 and higher.
                    • 1942-1946 (War time): Open back Kluson tuners with no gear adjustment screw and plastic buttons, no peghead bushings. This was done to minimize metal usage.
                    • 1946: Open back Kluson tuners with gear adjustment screw. Tuners get metal buttons and again have metal peghead bushings.
                    • 1947: Kluson Deluxe tuner on all D body sizes (any style), and all style 28 models.
                    • 1947: Open back Grover Sta-tites on 0, 00, 000 models style 21 and lower. These post-WW2 open back Grovers have thin seamed buttons and the pointed baseplates which were never used on the pre-war open back Grovers. Also all the pre-war thin seamed button tuners were 6:1 ratio. The post-war tuners (and the thick-button open Grovers after 1937) were 12:1 ratio This makes post-war open back Grovers more easily identifible. Otherwise the post-war Grovers are direct drop-in replacements for the pre-war versions.
                    • 1947: Original Waverly tuners (open back, rounded base tips, butterbean buttons) after WW2 on 00 and 000 and some D guitars style 18 (and some 28) in the late 1940s and 1950s. Grover G-98 (post-war version) used on many smaller model Martins thru the 1950s.
                    • 1948: Sealed back kluson tuners on some models.
                    • 1950: Kluson sealed back (ridgeback) tuners on D models.
                    • 1958: Grover rotomatic tuners on style 28.
                    • 1965: Grover rotomatic tuners on all D size models.
                    • 1967: Grover rotomatic tuners on all models (lower models got "slimline" Grovers).
                    • 1970s-present: varies (Schaller, Grover, Sperzel, some stamped with "Martin").
                    • "Style B - Flannel lining, black ostrich grain keratol covering, heavy cipboard body, chain stiched edges, keratol bound, string pocket plated steel trimmings" $9.00
                    • "Style C - Duvetyn lining, padded heavy black grained keratol covering, three-ply wood body neck rest and string pocket leather strap handel brass lock and trimmings nickel-plated" $16.50
                    • "Style D - Rayon silk plush lining, heavily padded. construction and covering like Style C. nickel-plated brass lock and trimmings." $27.00

                    Martin Summary Timeline.
                    Mike (AKA elephantfan85) put this together, and it takes most of the info above and summarizes it into a single Martin timeline.

                    • 1920's Martin transitions away from pyramid long bridge to standard long bridge on 18 & 28 series. Happens gradually starting in the early 1920's. 17 series either never had pyramid bridge or transitioned earlier.
                    • 1922-1923, Martin makes guitars for Wurlitzer. Some lack Martin Serial #'s or markings of any kind.
                    • 1929 18+ series Martins fully switched over to nitro cellulose laquer finish. Transition started in 1926 with O-17H according to Longworth.
                    • 1929 Martin switches from rectangle to belly bridge (Longworth 2nd ed page 84)
                    • 1930 Oct, first time size & model number stamped on neckblock. Happens sometime after serial number 439xx and before or at 44362.
                    • 1932 Some 17 series models transition to 14 frets clear of body & non slothead.
                    • 1934 Most models switch to 14 fret clear of body and non slothead. Sometime around here Martin starts putting the Matin decal on the front of the peghead. For a short period of time they continue to stamp the back of the peghead as well.
                    • 1934 Martin ends their use of bar frets on most models. (Most other guitar makers had done so around the end of the 19th century.) Martin Hawaiian style guitars retain bar frets until at least 1938.
                    • 1938 D-18 #71539 has the rear-shifted X-brace with no popsicle brace
                    • 1938 change to rear-shifted X-brace
                    • 1939 D-28 #71968 has the rear-shifted X-brace with no popsicle brace
                    • 1939 D-18 #72618 and has a 1 & 3/4 nut with no popsicle brace
                    • 1939 D-18 #72702 has 1 & 3/4 inch nut WITH popsicle brace. Heel block on this one stamped 23 May 1939
                    • 1939 switch to narrow necks (1 & 11/16ths) at serial #72740 for 000 and D models.
                    • 1939 The #1 brace, inside near the neck block changes from 5/16ths of an inch wide to 1/2 inch wide, making it roughly twice as wide.
                    • 1944 last scalloped brace guitar was approximately #89926. Though some models have been seen after this number with scalloped braces, and before this number with tapered braces.
                    • 1945 Either Adirondack Red Spruce or Sitka for tops
                    • 1946 Sitka spruce used exclusively on the tops
                    • 1947 Last Herringbone D-28 #98233 in 1947
                    • 1947 Kluson deluxe tuners appear
                    • 1948 Sealed Kluson tuners appear
                    • 1953 "magic" spruce? Luthier Dana Bourgeois did an interview with C. F. Martin III in 1984. The interview was in preparation for an article by Eric Schoenberg and Bob Green on the history of the OM model and was published in the March 1985 issue of Guitar Player. Bourgeois was asked to sit in on the interview, and in the last two paragraphs of his recollections especially interesting: "One footnote that I do remember distinctly is that Mr. Martin said that in '52 or '53 the Martin Co. bought a large supply of Engelmann spruce in the form of government surplus of building material. Though he preferred Red Spruce, it was no longer available after the mid-40s because all of the large stands had been decimated. Mr. Martin would have liked to switch from Sitka to Engelmann because he felt that Engelmann was closer to Red Adirondack Spruce than Sitka was. He could not, however, find anyone who was cutting Engelmann commercially, so they went back to Sitka." This nugget of information caught my attention because for many years I Of course, aside from the color of the tops, the anecdote does not in itself prove anything. But it at least suggests how the story might have gotten started.
                    • 1958 Style D28 gets Grover rotomatic tuners
                    • 1964 (summer) - It's generally accepted that hide glue was replaced with aliphatic resin (titebond) after the move to the new Martin facility. (But hide glue was still used until the mid-seventies for gluing tops and backs.)
                    • 1965 Grover rotomatic tuners on all D size models.
                    • 1965 Martin switches to short drop-in saddle (On D-18's, likely others as well)
                    • 1966 Boltaron binding started. White replaced ivoroid and black replaced tortoise.
                    • 1967 Black acetate pickguards first used. Replace tortoise colored celluloid
                    • 1967 Grover rotomatic tuners on all models (lower models got "slimline" Grovers).
                    • 1968 rosewood bridgeplates on all guitars #235586.
                    • 1969 rosewood bridgeplates are larger on "D" guitars #242454 (1988 Longworth pages 57-58)
                    • 1969 Brazillian rosewood is replaced by Indian. The first Indian guitars were four D-28's ser# 243644-47. The change in regular production may have started with #254498, though I've also heard that the number varied by model number, possibly as follows:
                      • D21 #254498
                      • D12-45 #255037
                      • D41 #255717
                      • D45 #256266

                      More Info on a Martin Playability (Neck Sets and Bridges).
                      The only proper way to make a "high string action" Martin guitar play correctly is to do a "neck set". This repair involves removing the neck on the guitar, and refitting the neck at a slightly increased angle, which lowers the string action. If done correctly, this does not affect the value of the guitar (and in fact can make it more valuable, as the guitar is much more playable). Generally speaking, most players would agree if the "string action" is more than 3/16 inch (5 mm) at the 12th fret, the guitar needs a neck set. This measurement is taken from the bottom of the low-E string, to the top of the 12th fret.

                      This is a somewhat expensive and delicate repair. But it is a repair often needed on many vintage Martins. A proper neck set not only makes the guitar play better, but also will make it *sound* better too.

                      Because a neck set is expensive, some owners/repair people will take "short cuts" to avoid doing a neck set. These short cuts are usually temporary at best, and never give the best outcome. These include lowering the bridge saddle and lowering the bridge.

                        Lowering the Saddle.
                        The original saddle is desirable on a vintage Martin. So when lowering the saddle, remove the original saddle (and store is safely away), and have a new lower saddle installed (removing material from the saddle is required to lower it, so don't mess with the original saddle).

                      The problem with lowering a saddle is this: the lower the saddle, the less "drive" there is across the bridge and the top of the guitar. The less "drive", and the guitar won't usually sound as good as it could.

                      Remember, on a flat top guitar the strings "drive" the bridge, which vibrates the top of the guitar. This is where the sound and tone come from. The lower the bridge saddle, the less "drive", and the less potential tone. The ideal bridge saddle height should be about 1/8" to 3/16" (4 to 5 mm) above the top surface of the bridge.

                      Lowering the Bridge (yikes!)
                      Again, as with the bridge saddle, too low of a bridge will decrease the "drive" of the strings. Thus the sound and tone will suffer. Also a low bridge is structurally not a good idea, as the bridge can more easily crack (and damage the top of the guitar). Most original Martin guitar bridges are about 3/8" tall (from bottom to the highest part of the bridge).

                      Again, if a Martin guitar needs a neck set, don't try and solve the problem of high string action any other way! Take the guitar to a *good* repair person, pay the money, and have a proper neck set done. A good neck set will make the guitar play and sound the best it can. With the correct neck set and bridge and saddle height, the guitar strings will drive the top of the guitar best, giving the best sound possible, and at the ideal playing action. And after all, isn't that what it's all about?

                      Martin Flat Top Model Specs

                        Rosewood back and sides, inlaid bridge pins, abalone inlay along the top, back, sides, around edge of fingerboard, and around the soundhole, around the neck heal, around the butt (by endpin). Fancy backstripe, ebony fingerboard. First listed in 1904. In the case of the OM-45, There was also a Martin OM-45 Deluxe version made in 1930.

                      • Scroll peghead inlay.
                      • Snowflake pattern fingerboard inlays at 5/7/9/12/15 frets.
                      • Ivory bridge and body binding.
                      • Ebony bridge instead of ivory.
                      • Celluloid grained plastic white binding instead of ivory.
                      • OM-45 introduced with small tortoise pickguard, 25.4" scale, 14 fret neck with solid peghead, gold plated banjo tuners, torch peghead inlay.
                      • OM-45 Deluxe (only made in 1930), 14 made. The OM-45 Deluxe pickguard had a pearl inlay in the tortoise pickguard, the bridge wings have snowflake pearl inlays, and the banjo tuners were gold plated with engraved buttons. It is not uncommon to see 'regular' OM-45 models that have a replaced bridge with the pearl snowflakes (as a customer upgrade).
                      • D-45 introduced (91 total made from 1933 to 1942), first two made (1933/1934) with 12 fret neck (all other had 14 fret neck),
                      • One D-45 made with a 12 fret neck and a solid peghead (sixth D-45 ever made). The remaining 85 (of 91) D-45s were made from 1937 to 1942.

                      Style 45 discontinued in 1942.

                      • Black and white plastic purfling boardering abalone top and side inlay.
                      • Hexagonal fingerboard inlays on all sizes.
                      • D-size has boxed endpiece (double border) with abalone.
                      • 230 Brazilian rosewood D-45 models made in 1968-1969.

                        Style 42 flat top.
                        Collectibility Rating: Pre-WWII OOO-42: A+, OO-42: A-, O-42: B.

                      Rosewood back and sides, fancy inlay, fancy backstripe, ebony fingerboard. 0-42 and 00-42 were always 12 fret models until discontinued in 1942.

                      • Abalone inlay around top, soundhole and border around neck tongue.
                      • Ivory binding on top and back.
                      • Ivory bridge.
                      • Pearl tuner buttons.
                      • Ebony bridge replaces ivory.
                      • Celluloid binding replaces ivory.
                      • Bound neck with varied patern fingerboard inlays.
                      • OM-42 made with 14 fret neck, 25.4" scale, solid unbound peghead, nickle plated banjo tuners. Front of the peghead is plain (no inlay and no Martin logo).

                      Style 41 flat top.
                      Collectibility Rating: Brazilian rosewood D-41 size: B+. Indian rosewood D-41 size: D-.

                        Rosewood back and sides, inlaid bridge pins, abalone inlay along the top, and sound hole only. Fancy backstripe, ebony fingerboard, hexagonal abalone fingerboard markers from 3rd to 15th fret, triple bound peghead, vertical pearl logo, volute on neck. First listed in 1969 in D-size only.

                      • Larger hexagonal fingerboard inlays from 3rd to 15th fret.
                      • 31 Brazilian rosewood D-41 models made in 1969 (starting with #252014). All others Indian rosewood and not collectible.

                      Style 40 flat top.
                      Collectibility Rating: B (would be higher but most models were made in Hawaiian style).

                        Rosewood back and sides, abalone (pearl) inlay around top edge and soundhole (but not on top around the fingerboard like a style 41,42,45 would have), inlaid bridge pins. Fancy backstripe of horizontal lines between two rows of diagonal lines (like style 45). Most style 40 models made were hawaiian style with flat fingerboard radius, flat flush frets, high string action, and no bridge saddle compensation. Most popular was the OO-40H (though they did made 2-40, 0-40, 000-40 and 000-40H models prior to WW2). Sometimes these are converted to regular "spanish" style guitar (fingerboard radiused, refretted, neck reset, bridge saddle angled). Made from the 1860s to 1917, then 1928 to 1941, then 1985 to present.

                      • German silver tuners with pearl buttons.
                      • Ivory bound fingerboard and peghead.
                      • Ivory bridge
                      • Ivoroid bound top and back.
                      • Snowflake inlays beginning at 5th fret.
                      • Unbound fingerboard and peghead.
                      • Style 40 reintroduced.
                      • Ebony bridge.
                      • Most often seen as the Martin 00-40H (hawaiian) with 12 frets clear of the body and a sloted peghead. The 00-40H maintained this configuration until 1941 when it was discontinued.

                      Style 35 flat top.
                      Collectibility Rating: D-35 1965 to 1969: C-, D-35 1970 to present: D-.

                        Rosewood back and sides, 3-piece back with marquetry between sections, ebony bridge, bound ebony fingerboard, dot inlays, volute on neck. First listed in 1965 in D-size only.

                      1946 D-28 Martin.

                        Collectibility Rating: 1934-1944 OOO-28 and D-28 sizes: A, 1945-1965 OOO-28 and D-28 sizes: B, 1965-1969 OOO-28 and D-28 sizes: C. Smaller body sizes subtract a full letter grade.

                      Rosewood back and sides, volute or "ice cream cone" on back of neck. First listed in 1870s.

                      • OM-28 introduced with 14 fret neck, pyramid bridge, 25.4" scale length, no pickguard, banjo tuners, inlays at frets 5/7/9, solid peghead with no "Martin" decal. Pickguard added in late 1929.
                        Sub-group: Martin O-28K (koa):
                        • 1923 0-28k specs: Curly Koa body, including top. Steel strings, nut adjuster, regular style 28 trimmings with herringbone around top. Pyramid bridge with straight saddle. Suitable for regular playing with nut adjuster removed.
                        • 1925 0-28k specs: High nut and pyramid bridge with straight saddle
                        • 1926 0-28k specs: Listed with flush frets (not suitable for spanish style playing).
                        • 1929 0-28k specs: Raised frets optional, lacquer finish.
                        • 1930 0-28k specs: Belly bridge, straight saddle.
                        • OM-28 gets a larger pickguard, right angle tuners, and inlays at frets 5/7/9/12/15.
                        • D-28 introduced with 12 fret neck, white bridge pins with tortoise colored dots (a total of 41 D-28s were made from 1931 to 1933 with a 12 fret neck).
                        • Inlays from 5th to 15th fret, 2 inlays at 5th fret, 1 at 7th fret, 2 at 9th fret.
                        • Sunburst shaded top available.
                        • Heavy bracing replaces scalloped bracing.
                        • Small graduated dots replaces slotted diamond inlays.
                          1947 Style 28 specs:
                          • Large graduated sized dot finger board inlays.
                          • Black/White binding with white grained outer layer replaces herringbone binding (last herringbone was serial# 98223).
                          • Narrow chainlink backstripe replaces zipper pattern (last zipper back was serial# 99992).
                          • Indian rosewood back and sides replaces Brazilian (last Brazilian rosewood model was serial# 254497).

                          Style 21 flat top.
                          Collectibility Rating: 1934-1944 OOO-21: B, 1945-1965 OOO-21 and D-21 sizes: C, 1965-1969 OOO-21 and D-21 sizes: D. Smaller body sizes subtract a full letter grade.

                            Rosewood back and sides, style 18 type neck (no volute). First listed in 1869. 0-21 and 00-21 always has 12 fret neck (except for three made during the 1930s) until discontinued.

                          • Ebony fingerboard.
                          • No fingerboard inlays.
                          • Herringbone back stripe.
                          • 5 soundhole rings.

                            Herringbone soundhole ring, tortoise outside binding layer.

                          • No 000-21 models made fromn 1932 to 1937.
                          • Inlays from 5th to 15th fret, 2 inlays at 7th and 12th frets.
                          • Black outside layer body binding.
                          • Tortoise pickguard.
                          • 000-21 reintroduced with a 14 fret neck. The 00-21 stayed 12 fret until 1994 when it was a retired model. The 0-21 also stayed 12 fret until 1948 when it was discontinued.
                          • Heavy bracing replaces scalloped bracing.
                          • Small graduated dots replaces slotted diamond inlays.
                          • Black/White inlay replaces herringbone around soundhole.
                          • Narrow checked backstripe replaces herringbone.
                          • Larger graduate sized fingerboard dots.
                          • 00-21, 000-21: Rosewood fingerboard replaces ebony.

                          Style 18 flat top.
                          Collectibility Rating: 1934-1944 OOO-18 and D-18 sizes: B, 1945-1965 OOO-18 and D-18 sizes: C, 1965-1969 OOO-18 and D-18 sizes: D. Smaller body sizes subtract a full letter grade.

                            Originally introduced with rosewood back and sides, the Style 18 since 1917 has Mahogony back and sides, no volute neck, black bridge pins. First listed in 1857.

                          • Small dot fingerboard markers at 5th, 7th and 9th frets.
                          • Soundhole inlay of nine alternating black and white rings, inbetween two single black rings.
                          • Black back stripe.
                          • OM-18 introduced with small pickguard, belly bridge, black bridge pins and black backstripe, 14 fret neck, 25.4" scale (longer than 000-18), no peghead decal, banjo tuners.
                          • OM-18 has larger pickguard, normal right angle tuners, decal peghead logo.
                          • 00-18 now uses a belly bridge (0-18 still has a rectangle bridge).
                          • Tortoise pickguard.
                          • 5-ply top binding with black plastic outer layer.
                          • Single ply black plastic back binding.
                          • Small graduated dot fingerboard inlays from the 5th fret to the 15th fret. The 5th fret inlay is the largest (1/4"), with the 7th fret being slightly smaller, and the 9th, 12th and 15th being all the same size (smaller still). The size of the dots goes from .25" to .20 to .15" in diameter at the 9th thru 15th frets.
                          • D-18 Introduced with a 12 fret neck, ebony fingerboard, black bridge pins (a total of 29 D-18s were made from 1932 to 1933 with a 12 fret neck).
                          • 000-18 replaced by the 0M-18 (only in 1932 & 1933), and 000-18 not available.
                          • 0-18 now uses a belly bridge.
                          • 000-18 reintroduced (replaces OM-18) with 14 frets clear of the body, 24.5" scale.
                          • D-18 now has a 14 fret neck.
                          • Shaded sunburst top optional.
                          • 0-18, 00-18, 000-18: most with rosewood fingerboard (still some with ebony).
                          • Tortoise outer body binding used on some Style 18 models. Body size 000-18 and smaller used tortoise first, with D-18 models getting tortoise outer body binding around 1938. But either black or tortoise can be seen in 1936-1938 on Style 18 models.
                          • Some models have rosewood back binding instead of tortoise celluloid, due to wartime shortages.
                          • Either Sitka or Adirondack Red spruce top (Sitka is prevelant on D18's).
                          • Larger uniform sized dot fingerboard inlays replace small graduated dots.
                          • Sometimes multi-piece Adirondack spruce tops are seen in this year on 000 models.
                          • Sitka spruce top (darker than the 1945 and prior Adirondack spruce).
                          • Rosewood fingerboard replaces ebony on D-18.
                          • Large graduated sized dot fingerboard inlays (larger than the pre-1946 graduated dots) at 5th, 7th, 9th, 12th and 15th frets. Dot sizes start at .30" to .25" to .20" in diameter at the 9th thru 15th frets.

                          Style 17 flat top.
                          Collectibility Rating: Pre-1945 OOO-17 and OO-17: C-, 1945-1965 OOO-17 and OO-17: D. Smaller body sizes subtract a full letter grade.

                            1856 Style 17 specs:
                            • Rosewood back and sides.
                            • Rectangle bridge.
                            • No back binding.
                            • white back stripe.
                            • Most with black neck and ice cream cone neck heel.
                            • ivory tuner buttons.

                            Style 17 discontinued 1898.

                            • Mahogany back and sides.
                            • Spruce top.
                            • 3 layer top binding.
                            • rosewood bound back.
                            • unbound ebony fingerboard.
                            • small dot fingerboard inlays at 5/7/9 frets.

                            Style 17 discontinued 1918.

                            • All mahogany construction, including the top.
                            • Steel string design (Martin's first model to use it).
                            • No body binding, top or back.
                            • Model maintains its rectangle bridge (belly bridge never used on this style).

                            Style 17 discontinued 1961.

                            Style 17 discontinued 1968.

                            Style 16 flat top.
                            Collectibility Rating: D-

                            Mahogany top, sides and back. Multiple bound top with dark outer binding, unbound back, dot fingerboard inlays, non-gloss finish.

                            • D-size style 16 introduced. Single bound top and back, koa, mohagany, ash or walnut offered (at different times).

                            Style 15 flat top.
                            Collectibility Rating: D--

                            Mahogany top, back and sides. No binding used, rosewood fingerboard and bridge, semi-gloss finish, rectangle bridge used for all production. Very similar to the Style 17, except the finish was less glossy.

                            Style 15 discontinued 1944.

                            Martin Arch Top Model Specs

                            A 1932 Martin C-1 Archtop with round sound hole.

                            Style C-1 arch top.
                            Collectibility Rating: D--

                            Arch top body size is equivalent to the flat top 000 body size, 15" wide across the top, carved spruce top, back is not carved but is arched by bracing, mahogany back and sides, style 18 flat top trim, trapeze tail piece, rosewood fingerboard, nickel plated parts, sunburst top finish.

                              1931 Style C-1 specs:
                              • Vertical pearl "Martin" peghead logo on early models.
                              • Round sound hole.
                              • f-holes introduced instead of round sound hole. Made either way this year.
                              • Decal style peghead logo (vertical pearl logo dropped).

                              A 1942 Martin C-2 Archtop.

                              Style C-2 arch top.
                              Collectibility Rating: D-

                              Arch top body size is equivalent to the flat top 000 body size, 15" wide across the top, carved sruce top, back is not carved but is arched by bracing, rosewood back and sides, unbound elevated tortoise pickguard, style 28 type multiple bound top and back with white outer layer, zipper zigzag backstripe, trapeze tail piece, rosewood fingerboard, vertical "Martin" peghead logo, nickel plated parts, sunburst top finish.

                              The C-series archtops were long scale until mid-1934, same as the 000 models. Sometimes a C model is converted from an archtop to a 000 style flat top. A conversion of a short scale C-2 (mid-1934 and later) won't exactly be a 000 either. The neck must be shortened to get the shallower angle required for a flat top. This amounts to about 1/3 of a fret, so the guitar ends up having a 13 2/3 fret neck. This puts the bridge position a little lower on the top, closer to the OM bridge position (but not exactly the same). The other feature on the C models that is different from a 000 is the back arch and the back braces. The archtops have more arch in the back and taller #3 and #4 back braces. Note the 1939 and later C-2 models have no abalone, the neck inlays are pearloid.

                                1931 Martin C-2 guitar introduction specs:
                                • Round sound hole.
                                • Unbound fingerboard.
                                • Slotted diamond fingerboard inlays.

                                Style C-3 arch top.
                                Collectibility Rating: D

                                Arch top body size is equivalent to the flat top 000 body size, 15" wide across the top, carved spruce top, back is not carved but is arched by bracing, rosewood back and sides, 5-ply top binding with pearloid outer layer, elevated tortoise pickguard with b/w binding, backstripe of two horizontal lines surrounded by two rows of diag lines (like a Style 45), bound ebony fingferboard, style 45 fingerboard snowflake inlays, trapeze tail piece, vertical "Martin" peghead logo, bound peghead, gold plated parts, sunburst top finish.

                                The C-series archtops were long scale until mid-1934, same as the 000 models. Sometimes a C model is converted from an archtop to a 000 style flat top. A conversion of a short scale C-2 (mid-1934 and later) won't exactly be a 000 either. The neck must be shortened to get the shallower angle required for a flat top. This amounts to about 1/3 of a fret, so the guitar ends up having a 13 2/3 fret neck. This puts the bridge position a little lower on the top, closer to the OM bridge position (but not exactly the same). The other feature on the C models that is different from a 000 is the back arch and the back braces. The archtops have more arch in the back and taller #3 and #4 back braces. Note the 1939 and later C-2 models have no abalone, the neck inlays are pearloid.

                                1934 Martin Style C-3 discontinued.

                                Style F-1 arch top.
                                Collectibility Rating: D--

                                Arch top body, 16" wide across the top, similar trim to the C-1 arch top, mahogany back and sides, f-holes, sunburst top finish.

                                Introduced in 1940 and discontinued in 1942.

                                Style F-2 arch top.
                                Collectibility Rating: D-

                                Arch top body, 16" wide across the top, similar trim to the C-2 arch top, rosewood back and sides, f-holes, sunburst top finish.

                                Introduced in 1940 and discontinued in 1942.

                                Style R-17 arch top.
                                Collectibility Rating: D---

                                Arch top body like a 00 size flat top, 12 frets clear of the body, 14 1/8" wide across the top, top not carved but arched with braces, mahogany top, back not carved but arched by braces, 3 piece f-holes, sunburst top finish.

                                Introduced in 1934 and discontinued in 1942.

                                Style R-18 arch top.
                                Collectibility Rating: D--

                                Arch top body like a 00 size flat top, 12 frets clear of the body, 14 1/8" wide across the top, arched spruce top, back not carved but arched by braces, 4 ply top binding with black outer layer, sunburst top finish.

                                  1932 Style R-18 introduction specs:
                                  • Inside body stamped as 00-18S (instead of R-18).
                                  • Round sound hole.
                                  • Top is not carved, but arched with braces.

                                  Style F-7 arch top.
                                  Collectibility Rating: D

                                  Arch top body 16" wide across the top, carved spruce top, back not carved by arched by braces, rosewood back and sides, f-holes, style 45 backstripe, bound ebony fingerboard, 2 white lines inlaid down length of fingerboard at the edges, hexagonal fingerboard inlays on 6 frets (sometimes pearl, sometimes ivoroid), vertical "Martin" pearl peghead logo, nickel plated parts, sunburst top finish.

                                  Introduced in 1935, discontinued in 1942.

                                  Style F-9 arch top.
                                  Collectibility Rating: D+

                                  Arch top body 16" wide across the top, carved spruce top, back not carved by arched by braces, rosewood back and sides, f-holes, style 45 backstripe, bound ebony fingerboard, 2 white/black/while lines inlaid down length of fingerboard at the edges, abalone hexagonal fingerboard inlays on 8 frets (a few make with pearloid), vertical "Martin" pearl peghead logo, gold plated parts, sunburst top finish.

                                  Introduced in 1935, discontinued in 1942.

                                  Martin Ukulele Model Specs

                                  Martin Style 3k Uke

                                  Martin Ukuleles.

                                    Ukuleles were in highest production from 1916 to the 1930's, though still manufactured in quantity until 1965. Production quantities during some periods were as great as Martin guitars. Martin ukes are considered to be the best for craftsmenship and sound. The Koa wood models are more collectible than mahagony models. The fancier style 5 models are worth more than plainer styles 0 to 3. All sizes are collectible.

                                  The first Martin ukes, built in 1916, have serial numbers ranging from one to less than 200. Ukes made after 1916 do not have serial numbers and must be dated by specification changes.

                                  The Martins: Swannanoa’s Musical, Storytelling, Woodcarving Family

                                  The Martin family contributed not only to arts, crafts, and music in the Swannanoa Valley, but in western North Carolina and beyond. Each of their woodcarvings, fiddle melodies, and hand-crafted instruments are fine examples of the Southern Appalachian style. Their history also mingles with Native American history, as their ancestor, John Martin, was ethnically Cherokee. John’s name was either Tsu-ni-tlu-ltu or Ton-tsu, but little else is known about his life due to a lack of clear records. He was possibly born in present-day Walker County, Georgia around 1740 or 1750 and married a Scots-Irish woman whose name remains unknown. Some of the traditional crafts and music the Martin family was known for likely have roots in both the Scottish Highlands and the Cherokee regions of the southeastern United States.

                                  John’s great-great grandson and the patriarch of the Martin family, Marcus Lafayette Martin, was born on August 2, 1881. He married banjoist Callie Holloway, who gave birth to their five sons and one daughter: Fred, Quentin, Wade, Kendall “Wayne,” Edsel, and Zenobia, in Macon County, NC. After the Great Depression forced many Appalachians like Martin to find work outside of their homes, he moved with his sons to Swannanoa to take a job at Beacon Mills. This blanket factory, originally based in New Bedford, Massachusetts, relocated to Swannanoa in 1923 after mill owner Charles D. Owen, Sr., decided to move it to an area unsympathetic to labor unions (Anne Chesky-Smith, “Martin Music: Keeping Rural Traditions Alive in Urban Centers”).

                                  While at Beacon, Martin became renowned for his swift, distinct, and even mesmerizing fiddle tunes, which won him the “Old Timey Fiddler’s Convention” Championship in Raleigh in 1949. According to legend, Owen offered him a job at Beacon so that he could entertain residents in Beacon’s mill villages and prevent them from wanting to unionize. Marcus eventually attracted the attention of Peter Hoover, a songcatcher from Pittsburgh who came to Swannanoa in the fall of 1959.

                                  Hoover recorded 54 of Marcus’ songs, many of which are available in the Southern Folklife collection at UNC Chapel Hill. His repertoire contains standard old-time dance tunes like “Cotton-Eyed Joe” and ballads like “Sally Goodin.” However, he also recorded rarer, more exotic, and lesser-known tunes like “Snowbird” (possibly a Native American melody), “Lady Hamilton,” and “Sandy River” – the latter of which is likely an original composition. Bascom Lamar Lunsford, a local performer and attorney, recruited Marcus for the Asheville Mountain Dance and Folk Festival, where he opened with the old-time tune “Grey Eagle” (“Martin Music”).

                                  Marcus Martin plays at the Asheville Mountain Dance and Folk Festival. Library of Congress.

                                  Nathaniel, Marcus’ father, and Manco Sneed, his mentor, encouraged Marcus to foster his musical talent. In fact, Marcus told Hoover that he learned “a number of tunes” from Sneed, including “Lady Hamilton.” However, when asked about where he got his knack for the fiddle in a 1974 interview , he answered, “Don’t ask me how it come [sic] to me. I don’t know for sure…All my ancestors were musicians, see, and I guess I took it from them.” Regardless of where he obtained his musical skills, Marcus’ recordings demonstrate his distinct melodic style.

                                  His attachment to Beacon led his sons Wade and Quentin (“Pepper”) to join the Beacon staff and the Industrial Baseball League, a popular form of sportsmanship among factories during the mid-20th century. Marcus’ sons – Wayne, Wade, and Edsel – all served the United States during World War II. Fred did not serve in the Armed Forces, but was a private detective for 35 years. Wayne received a Purple Heart, while Wade, a certified parachutist, was honorably discharged in 1946. Edsel served in the Navy and the US Federal Civil Service. After the war, each of the brothers took up woodcarving and started their own businesses.

                                  Wayne Martin carved the lives of ordinary mountain people, often infusing his sense of humor into his craft. (Ramsey Special Collections, UNCA)

                                  Wayne became deputy sheriff in 1974. After his nomination, he joked he was “the only dulcimer-playing sheriff on earth!” Like his father, he gracefully played gospel and old-time fiddle tunes like Amazing Grace and What a Friend We Have in Jesus . (He also carved “mountain folk,” 24 of which are on display at the YMCA Blue Ridge Assembly in Black Mountain. There is also a collection at Ramsey Library in UNC Asheville, valued at around $10,000.)

                                  Wade – nicknamed “Gob” – had a remarkable gift for storytelling. While in the woods, he said “a little old bearded mountaineer man that was about the size of a large ear of corn holding a fiddle and a bow” taught him his moral code. The man gave him a “magical Barlowe knife,” which “blended together” with his own “into one knife.” He ordered him to make his “religeous [sic] faith” the center of his carvings. After the man disappeared, Martin effortlessly carved a small bluegrass band, which then “came alive and began to play ‘the good ol’ mountain music” (Wade H. Martin, “Woodcarving Mountaineer Style” 11). He then sold these figures in Asheville so he could buy Christmas presents for his family, but only after the miniature fiddler smiled approvingly “as if to say, ‘You’ve done well, Gob!’” (“Woodcarving Mountaineer Style” 13). Today, Wade’s mountain people and animals can be found in Pack Memorial Library in Asheville and Ramsey Library at UNC Asheville.

                                  Edsel carving a dulcimer in his workshop (DuPuy Collection, Swannanoa Valley Museum)

                                  Edsel also carved wooden figures. However, unlike his brother Wayne, he primarily focused on birds, banjos, and dulcimers – often shaping them into human, dog, and flower faces. Like his father, he was a talented musician. West Virginian musician Billy Edd Wheeler once remarked Edsel grew up hearing these songs played “as often as the birds sing, and as naturally” (“Martin Music”). Wheeler would later become great friends with Edsel, calling him “one of the best all around dulcimer players in the world” (“Billy Edd Wheeler, “Appalachian Dulcimer Music 1). He even played some of his dulcimers for his albums, and wrote “The Ballad of Edsel Martin” to honor his fellow musician.

                                  Although Wayne, Wade, Fred, and Edsel’s carvings are the most renowned, for the artistic Martin family, woodworking was a family affair, as it supplemented their factory wages. Even their sister Zenobia whittled a few figurines. Most family members eventually joined the Southern Highland Handicraft Guild, an organization created during the 1930s to foster the production of arts and crafts in the Southern Appalachian region. Warren Wilson College and John C. Campbell Folk School continue to educate woodcarvers with techniques similar to those the Martins used over 50 years ago.

                                  The Martin family was fiercely proud of their heritage. Their family hymn, “Battle Hymn of the Martins” (sung to “Battle Hymn of the Republic”) expresses their loyalty and commitment to keeping their traditions alive:

                                  The House of Martin cherishes traditions of the past,
                                  With the world’s great movements they have all their fortunes cast
                                  And when they pledge their honor they are loyal to the last.
                                  The clan goes marching on!

                                  Together, the Martins represent Swannanoa’s long history of fostering local arts, crafts, and songs, and the Valley is grateful for their talent.


                                  (With Bryan Magee) On Blindness: Letters between Bryan Magee and Martin Milligan, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1995.

                                  SIDELIGHTS: Martin Milligan was a philosopher who lost his sight and his eyes to retinal cancer in the 1920s when he was eighteen months old. He attended schools that pioneered the teaching of blind, as well as sighted, students, and he eventually graduated from Edinburgh University in his native Scotland as well as from Balliol College, Oxford. Milligan belonged to the Communist Party from 1941 until the late 1970s, and the Labour Party until his death. Because of his physical disability and his politics, he was denied academic appointments and survived as a lecturer and office worker until 1959, when he began his career at Leeds University.

                                  On Blindness: Letters between Bryan Magee and Martin Milligan was published a year after Milligan's death. Magee, also a philosopher, asked Milligan to assist him in his study of the senses. Magee wanted to communicate with someone who had never experienced the sense of sight but who was philosophically sophisticated. He first worked with a blind lawyer named Rupert Cross, but Cross died before a book could be developed. On Blindness consists of eight long letters. Magee's goal was to assess Milligan's perception of sight and the link between that sense and experience and knowledge.

                                  Milligan reveals in his letters that to be blind is not to be in the dark. His dreams were similar to those of sighted people, filled with sensory imagery and a sense of space. Spectator contributor Sargy Mann wrote that "the correspondence [between the two writers] is … philosophy in the making in which we share. Like us, Milligan and Magee do not know what is coming next, and there are several surprises" along the way. The two men sometimes misunderstand each other. Milligan writes that although the blind are denied certain visual pleasures, they are also spared a certain amount of suffering experienced by the sighted. He also expresses his long-held advocacy for the education of the blind.

                                  Magee feels that a blind person's perception of the world is greatly limited by his or her lack of sight. As Anthony Campbell reported on his Web site, Magee discloses in his autobiography, Confessions of a Philosopher, his belief that "our view of reality is inherently limited…. If we had more sensory capabilities than we actually do, he maintains, our understanding of the world would be radically different from what it is." Milligan, however, repeatedly expresses the belief that the perceived differences between what the sighted and the blind comprehend are greatly exaggerated.

                                  "What the correspondence throws up is two worlds far more different than Magee had anticipated," noted Mann, "and since the two men cannot agree as to the nature of knowledge, they never really get started on Magee's intended subject. The paradox is that this failure supports Magee's premise far more powerfully than would have the meeting of ideas that he had hoped for. The 'every man is an island' aspect of all this is cruelly underlined by Milligan's untimely death." Henry H. Work wrote in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry that in his conclusion, Magee "provides a most lucid and comfortable way of thinking about our various senses and the meaning of their composite worth for our knowing the world…. It is healthy to read this book, if only to complement our usual strains of thought."

                                  See How the Hollywood Sign Has Changed Over Time

                                  The 50-ft.-tall lettering, which was lit by thousands of flashing light bulbs, was erected as an advertisement not for the movie-making mecca, but for a housing development called Hollywoodland.

                                  The development was complete by the end of 1923, according to the Hollywood Sign Trust. And the Hollywoodland developers figured it would about a year to sell the remaining plots, at which point the billboard would be dismantled, according to Gerald Schiller’s It Happened in Hollywood.

                                  So much for that. The temporary advertisement became a permanent landmark, playing roles large and small in all sorts of Hollywood stories (including that of the actress Peg Entwhistle, who committed suicide by jumping from the sign). By 1949, with the bulbs long since burned out and the sign battered by weather, the city decided to replace the original with a new sign that was four letters shorter, advertising not housing but the California silver-screen dream.

                                  THANK YOU!

                                  The Martin County Historical Society thanks you for your support!

                                  Please consider many of the ways you can help us continue our mission:

                                  Thank You

                                  Please consider many of the ways you can help us continue our mission:

                                  • Join the MCHS as an annual member &ndash we have several membership levels beginning at the $25
                                    per year mark. Memberships are a key source of income for the MCHS and have allowed us to
                                    be a stable and growing historical society!
                                  • Visit the museum &ndash all visitors are welcome and there is NO admission fee required so please
                                    stop down to the museum to learn about Martin County History and check out some really neat
                                    artifacts! We are open Monday through Friday 8:30am &ndash 12:00pm, 1:00pm &ndash 4:30pm year
                                  • Consider a donation of an artifact &ndash our museum displays and archives are only as good as the
                                    artifacts that are donated to us. Thankfully, over the years we have had many thoughtful and
                                    generous donors who have contributed items, documents, and photos to our collection
                                    consider what your piece of Martin County History could be!
                                  • Give a one-time donation gift &ndash donations of any size also help us to further our work by help uswith our operating expenses and other projects!
                                  • Leave a Legacy &ndash support Martin County history by planning ahead and putting the MCHS into
                                    your will or estate.
                                  • Volunteer - MCHS can always use volunteers for our various events, projects, and tours. There
                                    are several different volunteer opportunities available ranging from newsletter folding to
                                    participating in our School Tour program!


                                  The Martin County Historical Society was organized in 1929 and has been located in the former St. Paul&rsquos Convent School since 1956. An addition to the museum was completed in 1995 with an elevator being added in 2007 and motion lighting installed in 2009. The research library continues to be upgraded with new technology and resources. The museum has over 10 rooms full of great historical displays that are continually enhanced.

                                  The MCHS is constantly striving to preserve the history of our county. Our mission reads: We shall preserve and share the history of Martin County by acquiring, conserving, appropriately displaying, and making it accessible for viewing, research, and educational purposes. We&rsquove worked to preserve many artifacts and documents, both large and small, with the help of our many generous donors and helpful volunteers. Our museum is filled with these many artifacts and proper care has been taken to ensure these last for many generations.

                                  The Martin County Historical Society entertains approximately 2500 visitors every year. Visitors come from all across the United States and even from other countries. The museum is open 5 days a week throughout the year and during business hours the museum has no admission charge and is free for all to view.

                                  The Martin County Historical Society has a vibrant Youth Program that reaches kids of many ages. All county schools are invited to visit the museum where volunteers including many retired local teachers assist in giving tours. Each school is also invited to participate in our 5 th Grade Historic Walking Tour field trip (in conjunction with Heritage Acres) which sees local volunteers act out the part of early Martin County citizens.

                                  All tours are free to the schools. In addition the MCHS staff seeks annual grants to cover the cost of bus fees and other materials.

                                  Altogether the MCHS reaches 600-700 kids every year just through our programs and many return to visit the museum on their own time with family and friends.

                                  In addition to our daily visitors and school programs, the Martin County Historical Society has a number of other services and programs available: Free off-site PowerPoints for service clubs, schools, and assisted living homes monthly in-house PowerPoints and Video Interviews After-hours tours Parsonage and Museum rental for Class Reunions, Family Reunions, Meetings, etc. Free-to-use Research Library Research Requests Articles placed in the local Newspapers and much, much more!

                                  The Martin County Historical Society purchased the Pioneer Parsonage in February of 2009. MCHS Staff, Volunteers, and contractors have put in several thousand hours renovating the building to represent a home from the 1910-1930 era. The MCHS celebrated the Parsonage&rsquos completion in the Summer of 2013. The project was made possible by contributions from many donors and several Room Sponsors. The Parsonage functions as an extension of the museum for displays and a space for groups and individuals to rent for events and gatherings.

                                  The Crédit Mobilier Scandal (1872)

                                  What happened: Crédit Mobilier, the company hired to build the Union Pacific Railroad, used its stock to bribe top officials in President Ulysses S. Grant’s administration &mdash including the Vice President, the Speaker of the House and other members of Congress &mdash to secure federal support to build a transcontinental railroad. The scandal came to light in 1872, but it took place in 1867 before Grant was President.

                                  Nominated by: Manisha Sinha, professor of History at the University of Connecticut and author of The Slave&rsquos Cause: A History of Abolition

                                  Why it was so scandalous: “It was a prime example of corrupt crony capitalism that plagued the U.S. government,” says Sinha. “The tragedy of the Crédit Mobilier scandal was that it discredited the Grant Administration, even though the President was not involved in it personally, and [by extension the Administration’s] Reconstruction policy of protecting black rights against white terror in the post-Civil War South.”

                                  How One Man Created a 1,000 Ton Coral Castle in 1923

                                  Between 1923 and 1951, a diminutive Floridian single-handedly and without heavy machinery moved 1,000 tons of limestone, creating out of it a castle. This is his story.

                                  The Builder

                                  Very little is known of the mysterious creator of the Coral Castle, Ed Leeskalnin. Born in Riga, Latvia in 1887 to a family of stonemasons, Ed immigrated to the U.S. sometime around 1913 after his fiancée broke off their engagement (and a large piece of his heart). During a bout with tuberculosis around 1919, he moved to Florida, where magnets were apparently used to treat his condition. This experience seems to have had a life-changing effect, as you’ll see later.

                                  After he bought a parcel of land in Florida City, Florida, Ed began to work on the Castle. A loner, one hundred pound, five-feet tall Ed refused to let anyone even watch him work, and no one is known to have helped him move, carve or place the massive stones. When asked how he manipulated such large blocks alone, Ed would explain that he had “discovered the secrets of the pyramids.”

                                  The Castle

                                  Originally named Rock Gate Park, the Coral Castle was first erected at Ed’s remote Florida City home. Fearing the loss of privacy as development moved closer, Ed transported his castle, with the aid of a truck, tractor and trailer, 10 miles north to its present location in Homestead, Florida.

                                  Not really coral, the huge stones that comprise the castle are composed of oolitic limestone the coral designation came about later when visitors noticed fossilized coral and shells in some of the rocks.

                                  The average weight of the stones is about 14 tons each. With these huge rocks, Ed built walls, erected a tower and a 22-ton obelisk. He made a variety of “furniture” including beds and rocking chairs, as well as a fountain, table, well, sundial and throne.

                                  Apparently fascinated with astronomy, Ed carved a stone telescope, and even erected large stone depictions of Jupiter, Saturn and the moon from blocks weighing as much as 23 tons. For the most part, each carving and piece is made from a single stone. The tallest stones reach 25 feet, while the heaviest rock weighs nearly 30 tons.

                                  Using no joint compound or mortar, the massive stones, when combined together, are held in place by their own weight.

                                  They are so well constructed (and heavy) that during the Category 5 Hurricane Andrew in 1992, none of the stones shifted and the 8 ft. wall was not effected and remains to this day of uniform height around the wall.

                                  Perhaps the most spectacular structure on the grounds is the eight-foot tall revolving gate. Carved to exacting specifications, it clears the walls next to it by a mere quarter of an inch. Before it needed repair in 1986, it was widely reported that the swivel was so well designed that the gate could be opened with just the push of one finger.

                                  When it broke in 1986, the nine-ton gate required six men and a crane to remove and re-install what Ed put up alone. What they discovered when they did the repair was that he’d used a metal shaft placed in a hole drilled through the stone, positioned to balance the gate perfectly. The shaft itself sat on a truck bearing. What had caused the gate to break was simply that the bearing became rusted. They replaced the bearing and shaft, and again had to fix it in 2005, but today it is no longer quite so easy to open and close as it once was.

                                  So, How Did He Do It?

                                  Ed believed that the animating force in the universe does not come from the protons and electrons in the atom, but rather from tiny magnets of different and opposite polarity that imbue all matter. In his book, Magnetic Current , Ed explained his basic principle:

                                  [Because] the magnet can be shifted and concentrated . . . you can see that the metal is not the real magnet. The real magnet is the substance that is circulating in the metal. Each particle in the substance is an individual magnet by itself, and [contains] both North and South Pole individual magnets. They are so small they can pass through anything. In fact they can pass through metal easier than through the air. They are in constant motion . . . running one kind of magnets against the other kind, and if guided in the right channels they possess perpetual power.

                                  It is this “perpetual power” that Ed claims to have harnessed in order to move, carve and place his humongous stones. The power itself came from a machine he dubbed the Perpetual Motion Holder (PMH). He built it on his idea that electricity is made up of two magnetic forces that move opposite each other in a double helix motion. Ed’s machine was composed of two coiled wires, each having its own terminal and current, and connected to each other nose to tail in a circuit. This completed circuit allowed individual magnets to form into one of two currents, and the currents to “chase” each other in a never ending loop.

                                  Ed claimed that by directing this “perpetual electromagnetic energy”, he could easily manipulate the large stones. According to unverified reports, the massive rocks would then be floated into place like “hydrogen balloons.” Deriding the theories of conventional archaeologists, Ed is quoted as saying he had “found out how the Egyptians and the ancient builders of Peru, Yucatan, and Asia, with only primitive tools, raised and set in place blocks of stone weighing many tons.”

                                  Is Ed’s Machine Real?

                                  Several people have claimed to have successfully constructed a PMH, including Russell Martin , Nornd , Chris Sykes and Matthey Emery . But as you might imagine, hard, documented, well-vetted evidence of a full size machine that can float stones around as he said is hard to come by, which is unfortunate because such a technology would finally presumably give us a viable flying car.

                                  In reality, one person with the right expertise could have achieved this without any such machine . And, indeed, Leeskalnin had tripods of various sizes, pulleys, winches, etc- things he presumably would not have needed if he was simply floating stones around.

                                  But whether he truly did use some such amazing machine of his own creation, or just the much more likely common construction implements and know-how, the scope of the “castle”, as well as the craftsmanship involved in building it, is extremely impressive.


                                  The Beer Hall Putsch had several significant consequences. First, it led to a split between Hitler and Ludendorff the general considered Hitler a coward for sneaking away after the police had begun to fire. Second, Hitler decided that armed revolution was not the way to obtain power in Weimar Germany. After the failure of the putsch, he and the Nazi Party worked to manipulate the political system rather than plan another violent seizure of power.

                                  Third, the putsch brought the Nazi Party to national attention in Germany. The deaths of the 16 party members were also a propaganda victory for the Nazis. The men became martyrs, remembered in the foreword to “Mein Kampf” and entombed in two “temples of honor” in downtown Munich. Hitler held an elaborate march every year on the anniversary of the putsch, retracing the route from the Bürgerbräukeller to the spot where the shots had been fired in 1923. A flag that had been stained with blood from the putsch became a symbol of Nazi ideology. Hitler used this so-called 𠇋lutfahne,” or blood flag, to consecrate all new Nazi banners and flags.

                                  In 1933, a decade after the Beer Hall Putsch, Hitler became chancellor of Germany. He went on to lead his country into World War II (1939-45) and mastermind the Holocaust, the systematic, state-sponsored murder of some 6 million European Jews, along with an estimated 4 million to 6 million non-Jews.

                                  On November 8, 1939, Georg Elser (1903-45), a Nazi opponent, planted a bomb at the Bürgerbräukeller, where Adolf Hitler was delivering a speech commemorating the Beer Hall Putsch. However, Hitler left the beer hall shortly before the bomb detonated, killing seven people and injuring dozens more.

                                  Watch the video: November 22, 1963: NBC Radio News on the Hour