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Lockheed Hudson fuselage under construction
This picture shows a large number of Lockheed Hudsons under construction. Although the wings have been attached to the aircraft in the foreground they will later be removed and the aircraft shipped to Britain in parts, where it will be reassembled.
Lockheed Hudson (oz4832)
Quote: "Our model version of this airplane carries a pair of K&B .19s spinning three blade nylon props. It spans a mite more than 40in with an all up weight of 2lb 11oz, which is quite light. Markings are of course British, with a comouflage motif. "
Direct submission to Outerzone.
Update 12/03/2021: Added article, thanks to JohnLaycock.
QUote: "Controline Scale Twin Engine. Colorful rugged replica of WWII Sub Killer. Lockheed Hudson, by Paul Palanek.
Lockheed Hudson Bombers sent overseas in large numbers in World War II won praise as fighter-bombers in the British Isles. This US export proved a most popular emigrant during the early days of the war. The English most certainly have found a soft spot in their hearts for this great airplane. As a sub killer it was second to none. To sight sub sink same, you must first find it. This operation takes a fairly large bomber with a long range, as oceans are big and targets small.
After the prey is sighted, you push into a dive, and quickly drop your bombs, for U-boats crash dive in 20 seconds. Ordinarily you just can't do much of a power dive with a medium bomber - not and stay in one piece. However, you could in a Hudson. For this reason, the official record for sub-smashing is held by the RAF Coastal Command. It destroyed more subs than any other warplane, and has been used by the RAF longer than any American Bomber.
The Hudson was all metal, armed with a variety of rapid-firing guns, equipped with mammoth bomb bays and manned by a crew of four. A turret of the electrical type was mounted aft. At the time, she was the World's fastest bomber. Also, this 1939 Hudson, military version of the Lockheed 14 Civil transport, broke all previous globe circling records (3 days, 19 hours.)
Our model version of this airplane carries a pair of K&B .19's, spinning three blade nylon props. It spans a mite more than 40 in with an all-up weight of 2 lb 11 oz, which is quite light. Markings are of course British, with a camouflage motif. The colors used are sandy brown, green or olive-drab and sky blue under-surfaces. All construction has been kept simple and conventional. and nothing is hairy. At the same time we endeavored to keep the weight down and came up with a sound structure.
Fuselage is built around an 1/8 balsa crutch. All balsa formers are fastened to this member, including wing ribs W-I. The crutch is built up from two sheets with the seam as indicated in the drawings. Be certain all cut-outs are placed in the crutch. spar, leading edge, bellcrank and stab, etc. In positioning the formers, maintain a square condition to the fuselage centerline. Secure these formers with a few strips of 1/8 x 1/4 in planking. Allow ample room for the wing. Fasten the plywood bellcrank support, and when dry, secure the crank in place. Install the pushrod in the fuselage with about 2 in extending aft, to be trimmed later.
Plank as much of the fuselage as possible without interfering with the wing installation. Allow the fuselage thus far completed to to dry.
The wing is lightly trussed since it is balsa skin covered. "
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Lockheed Hudson fuselage under construction - History
A Lockheed Model 14 - Electra with a more civilian guise. (source)
A Domestic Plane Goes to War: The Hudson Bomber was actually a Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra 12 passenger transport plane (derived from the Lockheed 10 Electra), designed and built for the growing domestic air travel industry but was re-equipped for war service as the Lockheed Hudson Mk I (complete with the passenger windows on the fuselage intact). As an adapted civilian aircraft and not a specifically designed war machine, its use in operations was often questioned (more so in hindsight) due to the high casualty rates associated with the aircraft. In regards to Coastal Command, one of the major problems with the use of the Hudson for anti-shipping strikes was that the pilot was required to attack at mast level height (approx 50ft or less), thus rendering the plane and its crew very vulnerable to A.A (anti-aircraft) fire. This was due primarily to the dynamics of the 100pb bomb they were initially equipped with. I have come across reports (so far not of 59 Squadron), that the 100lb bombs were known to have bounced back off the ships and hit the planes that dropped them. More so, that the bombs would skim accross the water after release and explode beneath the aircraft. The crews were also required to fly at low level altitude to avoid German radar when patrolling the Dutch coast. E.E. Allen, a Canadian pilot flying Hudson's with 59 Sqn, notes in his memoirs that to avoid detection from German radar (and then having German fighters sent out to "splash" them) they were sometimes required to fly at about 20ft above the water, not a lot of room there for error. Herbert Tuckwood, a Canadian gunner with F/O Alex Neilson & crew, recalls on one particular shipping strike, lying on his stomach aiming a Lewis gun through an opening in the rear floor and raking the ships deck as they flew over!
Mast Level Attack: No. 16 Group (Nos. 53, 59, 320 (Dutch) Squadrons, and No. 407 Squadron, Royal Canadian Air Force) concentrated on the traffic between the estuary of the Elbe and the Hook of Holland. With iron determination the pilots of these squadrons dived through the flak and released their bombs from mast-height--or so near it that damage from impact with ship or sea was distressingly frequent. On 28th May, for instance, No. 59 Squadron recorded that one of its aircraft 'struck the sea with port prop--badly bent and homed on one engine at 60 m.p.h.'. The next day No. 407 Squadron reported a still more telling incident.' For the second time in two nights Pilot Officer O'Connell successfully bombed enemy shipping. After this last episode he is seriously thinking of taking up paper-hanging after the war. He went in so low to attack that he struck a mast and hung one of the bomb-doors thereon'. As material for an impressive 'line' this was probably surpassed only by an incident two years later, when a pilot of No. 455 Squadron, Royal Australian Air Force, returned from a shipping attack near the Dutch coast with several feet of mast attached to his aircraft. Tactics--and courage--of this kind reaped their reward, and during May alone Coastal Command claimed twelve ships, ten of which have since been confirmed. Many others were damaged. Unfortunately attacks at so low a level also involved severe losses and at forty-three aircraft for the month these were greater than the Command could possibly continue to accept. (www.ibiblio.org)
Deadly Missions: The following excerpt regarding the Hudson era, speaks of S/L Taylor DFC & Bar of 407 Sqn which formed at Thorney Island whilst 59 Sqn were stationed there and his time flying the Hudson.
". S/L Taylor was one of the original pilots on 407 Squadron when it was formed at Thorney Island in April 1941. He was one of the few survivors from the 'short life expectancy' era of flying Hudson's on the deadly enemy shipping strikes off the Dutch coast, and also on the first 1000-bomber raids on Germany. Thus he was a highly experienced airman and a force to be reckoned with. " (www.angelfire.com)
In the book, The Maw (James R. Stevens) it is stated that (Coastal Command) Hudson squadrons with a total strength of between 16-24 planes (of which 59 Sqn was one) would have had their strengths entirely replaced at least once, if not twice (meaning the squadron lost all of their aircraft once or twice). Of the 27 squadrons surveyed in the book, 59 operated the hudson for the shortest period of time, 8 months. So far I have found 19 Hudson losses for 59 Sqn, which would be about an "entire strength".
Is a passenger liner - a machine of war? Roy Thomas (whose uncle flew Hudson's on anti-shipping strikes) writes his opinion on the RAF's choice to use the Hudson for this purpose.
". (the choice) is partly the result of (Coastal Command HQ) having no policy about how to attack shipping from the air. Inter-service rivalry may be blamed for leaving the question of dealing with enemy merchant ships to the RN but it is obscene to note that a twin-engine civilian airliner derivative was being used to attack freighters at the same time other nations were using dive-bombers with success even against warships. " (www.vanguardcanada.com)
Anti-shipping strikes off the Dutch coast were notorious for their "low survival expectancy rate" throughout Coastal Command. By mid 1941, the first waves of Commonwealth airmen had started to arrive to the UK and later Coastal squadrons such as 59. According to Alwyn Jay, in his book Endurance, 500 RAAF personnel served with Coastal Command squadrons during WWII (on Liberator aircraft) from 1941-1945. Of course many of these would have started out on the Liberator's predocessors, such as those of 59 Sqn who started operations on the Lockheed Hudson. In his memoirs, one of the Canadian pilots, F/L EE Allen (Can) recalls that when the squadron switched to the Liberator in late 1942 the general consensus was that everybody would now survive the war, whereas before whilst flying the Hudson, every mission was considered a death sentence.
The 59 Sqn Lockheed Hudson Mk III - IIIA - VI: Amidst talk of the squadron being disbanded due to the lack of aircraft available after heavy Blenheim losses and quite possibly available to Coastal Command in general, Air Commodore Bill Tacon (the famous New Zealander known as "Shipbuster") was given credit for procuring 59 Sqn a replacement force, the Lockheed Hudson Mk.III. They would go on to fly the Mk.IV, V and Mk.VI variations before rearming with the B-24 Liberator in August 1942. The Squadron began conversion to the Hudson Mk.III in July 1941, the squadron ORB notes:
"On the 22 July 1941, "B" Flight returned to THORNEY ISLAND [from Detling] to commence re-arming with HUDSON A/C, and "A" Flight remained on a detached flight on BLENHEIM A/C at DETLING. ".
Operations on the Blenheim continued from Detling for the month of August 1941, with 'A' Flight receiving orders to return to Thorney Island on the 21st. On the 1st Sept, Hudson operations began wth 'B' Flight returning to flying whilst 'A' Flight undertook their training for conversion to the Hudson. The last Blenheim operation was on 30/09 when P/O Crouchen & crew (Sgt's Murrin, Peek & Drabble) in TR-P - flew a "HACH" patrol over Cherbourg, nothing seen.
Operational: Sept 1941 - Hudson Mk.III:After 5 weeks of training up on the MK IIIA's, the squadron began flying "HACH"(Le HAvre & CHerbourg) & "BEND" patrols over the Dutch & French Coastlines. The first mission was flown by P/O Richards & crew (Sgt's Longworth, McEwan & Major) - a "BEND" patrol over Dunkirk. The mission report shows that three enemy aircraft affronted their Hudson but were evaded. Tine Up: 2005 - Time Down: 2250. It was a fairly quiet start to Hudson operations with most patrols succesfully completed but with no attacks on either side. Those that weren't completed were either due to bad weather or mechanical issues. The first attempted attack on enemy shipping by a 59 Sqn crew ocurred on the 12th, when P/O Boyce & crew (Sgt's Hogarth, July & Dunn) attempted to attack a 3/4000ton M/V in convoy with two E/V's near Dunkirk. P/O Boyce circled to attack but the bombs hung up due to the release switch not being armed. All ships fired on the A/C with 1 hit to the starboard engine cowling. The rear gunner opened fire with 40/50 rounds as they passed over, no results seen.
2000th Sortie:On the 26th - P/O O'Kelly & crew (Sgt's White, Page & Lunan) flew the 2000th operational sortie for 59 Sqn, since the beginning of hostilities. The patrol was abandoned due to poor visibility.
On the 28th, Three aircraft:
- TR-P - P/O Richards & crew (Sgt's Longworth, McEwan & Major)
- TR-U - P/O Gee & crew (Sgt's Bolle, Pascoe & F/Sgt Pitcher)
- TR-Z - F/O Selby-Price & crew (Sgt's Tomkin, White & Page)
Set out at 1935 hours, on the first "Search" patrols carried out by the squadron. They were sent in search of two German invasion barges reported in the Channel. Nothing was seen. During their first month on Hudson operations, there were no a/c or crew losses sustained by the squadron.
Oct-Dec 1941:In October the "HACH" and the new "HABO"(Le HAvre & BOlougne) patrols continued. On the night of the 3rd, 59 Sqn lost their first Hudson crew when P/O Rogerson & crew (P/O Gee, F/Sgt Sharpe & Sgt Riddell) in TR-D failed to return from a patrol to Le Havre. The crew sent a "first sighting report" that 3 vessels had been sighted 3 miles west of Le Havre at 2000hrs. Nothing more was heard. The following day, four crews set out to find the crew of TR-D but nothing was seen. One of these was P/O Sherley-Price & crew (Sgt's White, Tomkins & Page) in TR-O, who would later on the 16th of Oct, become 59 Sqn's second Hudson crew loss when they failed to return from a night patrol. The only fatality from this crew listed on the CWGC is that of Sgt. Tomkins and although I haven't found mention of it in the ORB so far. it's possible that the other three crew members survived and became POW's.
PRINZ EUGEN SIGHTED: On the 23rd, P/O Luckwell & crew (P/O Pennycuick, Sgt's King, Grayson) flew a photographic recce of the docks at Brest, from 12000ft. After releasing the flash bombs and taking two runs over the target area they captured two good pictures showing the Port de Commerce, with camouflage over Prinz Eugen, despite heavy flak.
WARBIRDS: Lockheed Hudson survivors
The Lockheed Hudson is a disproportionately rare type. James Kightly examines the handful of survivors.
The Hudson came as a development of the Model 14 airliner, and was another step in the revitalised Lockheed company&rsquos twin engine types, which started with the Model 10 Electra. Used by many air forces, including the Commonwealth&rsquos RAF, RAAF, RNZAF, SAAF and RCAF, it was also used by the USAAF and USN and several other combatant nations.
Additionally, the Model 14 was licence produced and used by the Japanese, making the type one of the few in production by both Allied and Axis powers during W.W.II.
Despite the breadth and significance of its military service, it is a poorly represented survivor of the Lockheed twins. Nevertheless, the histories of the surviving examples show a fascinating mix.
The Hudson is, by any standard, a significant military type in the history of W.W.II, with a number of firsts and remarkable achievements to be recorded by its crews.
The history plane
The Hudson was built initially for the RAF shortly before the outbreak of W.W.II, and was the first significant aircraft contract for the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation &ndash the initial RAF order for 200 Hudsons far surpassed any previous order the company had received. As the civilian Model 14, the type is significant for being Chamberlain&rsquos &lsquoPeace in our Time&rsquo British Airways shuttle-diplomacy aircraft, and an adapted Model 14 was used by Howard Hughes for a successful pre-war global circumnavigation.
Some of the Hudson crew&rsquos significant feats during the first half of the war included becoming the first RAF aircraft to shoot down a German aircraft, on 8 October 1939, when, over Jutland, a Hudson gunner hit a Dornier Do 18 flying boat. As a sub hunter, it saw early success with two services that had never intended to fly the type - A PBO-1 Hudson of US Navy squadron VP-82 became the first US aircraft to destroy a German submarine when it sank U-656 southwest of Newfoundland on 1 March 1942, while a Hudson of 113 Squadron RCAF became the first aircraft of RCAF&rsquos Eastern Air Command to sink a submarine, sinking U-754 on 31 July 1942. Later, the Hudson was found ideal for clandestine work all over Europe with 138 and 161 (Special Duties) RAF Squadrons, where their load carrying capability outclassed the famous Lysanders Hudsons also undertook this work in the East.
As well as the extraordinary combat outlined by Michael Claringbould on page 48, some of the type&rsquos significant RAAF achievements included being the first type used to make an attack in the Pacific War, sinking a Japanese transport ship, the Awazisan Maru, off Kota Bharu, an hour before the attack on Pearl Harbor. Less positively but just as significant was the loss of several senior military and government figures on the 13 August 1940 in the Canberra Air Disaster crash, killing the six passengers and four crew, affecting the strength of the Menzies Government, and Australia&rsquos military leadership. Further notable records are outlined below.
The numbers game
Yet the Hudson is, in proportion to the numbers built, the rarest Lockheed twin, and despite its pre-eminent military record, the rarest of the military Lockheeds. Use in Canada and Australia postwar for mapping extended the type&rsquos survival chances, but even so, remarkably few are left. Of the earlier 149 Lockheed 10 Electras built, 15 survive of the only 130 Lockheed 12 Electra Juniors built, a remarkable 28 survive, 21% of production. Of the 3,028 Harpoon / Ventura family, 59 are extant, while of the 746 Lodestars made, a significant 61 survive. Of the 3,172 Model 14 Hudsons built, only 14 survive, less than half of one percent of production.
Today&rsquos &lsquoTojo Busters&rsquo
Australia has two of the most exciting Hudsons around. Firstly is the well known A16-112 (C/No.6041, US A-28 41-23182). With the RAAF from 1941 to 1947, it started service with No.1 OTU in Victoria, before going to 14 Squadron on 8th July 1942 for anti submarine patrols off Western Australia. Crossing the continent again, it then served a period with No.32 Squadron off the East coast of Australia, before travelling again to 6 Squadron, where it served out of Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea, on bombing, armed reconnaissance and patrol work for a period of twelve months. Later returned to the mainland for overhaul, it was allocated to the RAAF Survey Flight, and flew with them for the next two years.
After its RAAF service, it was VH-BNJ and later VH-EWA with East West Airlines &ndash the latter registration as the company&rsquos flagship &lsquoPeel City&rsquo between 1949 and 1953. It then went to Adastra Aerial Surveys Pty Ltd as VH-AIU (later VH-AGS) for high altitude photographic mapping, before a period of storage and finally acquisition by Hudson &lsquoremanufacturer&rsquo Malcolm Long, of Melbourne in 1976. Restored to fly &ndash and back to an overall accurate wartime configuration with Boulton Paul turret &ndash between 1983 and 1993 it flew again as VH-KOY (after the 2 Squadron code letters carried) before being loaned to Air World, Wangaratta Victoria from 1993, later moving to Coolangatta, Queensland with Malcolm.
In 2002 it flew as USAAC &ldquo889&rdquo for the film The Great Raid. Loaned to the Temora Aviation Museum (TAM) in 2003, it was acquired by TAM in 2004 and repainted in 2005 as RAAF &lsquoA16-211&rsquo &ndash a reversal of it&rsquos real serial &ndash &lsquoThe Tojo Busters&rsquo. Other than occasional flights by its sister aircraft &rsquo105, this has been, for many years, and remains, the world&rsquos only airworthy Hudson, a jewel in Australia&rsquos aviation history crown.
The RAAF Museum has the remains of two Hudsons in store, for future restoration. They are the fuselage of Mk.I (C/No 1873) A16-22 which served from 1940 to 1946, before going to Guinea Airways for parts, the fuselage being obtained by Harry Parrott, of Blackwood, SA, who intended to use it as a hut. Displayed after recovery at Pearce Dunn&rsquos Warbirds Aviation Museum at Mildura, Victoria between 1972 and 1983, it was then obtained by Malcolm Long, and parts used for his Hudson restorations in 1991, before going to the RAAF Museum and storage in 2006.
The second aircraft is construction number 6051, which received a USAAF designation A-28 and number 41-23192 before going to the RAAF as A16-122 in 1941. It was used by the famous Adastra Aerial Surveys Pty Ltd as VH-AGX between 1954 and 1973, when it crashed during a take off at Horn Island, Queensland. Like A16-22, it passed through the hands of Malcolm Long before ending up stored at the RAAF Museum.
Despite the importance of the type in RAF history, Britain has only one Hudson, naturally enough in the RAF Museum, and not surprisingly, it is an ex-Australian machine. Built as a Mk. IIIA (C/No.6464, US A-29A 41-36975, RAF FH174) it actually joined the RAAF as A16-199, not being delivered to the RAF. Passing through the ownership of the Macquarie Grove Flying School, the Herald Flying Service, and Adastra Aerial Surveys, it was eventually obtained by Sir William Roberts for his museum in Auchterader, Scotland, the Strathallan Collection, in 1973. After the closure of the collection, it went to the RAF Museum, Hendon in 1981 where it is on display in RAAF colours and with a turret and Uffa Fox lifeboat displayed alongside.
New Zealand&rsquos Hudsons
New Zealand has several Hudsons in preservation, including what is currently the best restored example in the world. This is Hudson Mk. III NZ2031 (previously AE499, C/No.3854) which was brought on charge in September 1941, and issued to No 1 Squadron RNZAF at Whenuapai, following assembly at Hobsonville. It served with No 4 Squadron RNZAF in Fiji, (and a brief period in New Caledonia) in August/September 1942, before returning to New Zealand in July 1944, and served with the School of Navigation and Reconnaissance at New Plymouth, later Wigram, until July 1948.
It was then sold to Mr Clarke of Oamaru in May 1949, and used as a shed and chicken coop on Mr Clark&rsquos farm, until being purchased by the RNZAF Museum Trust Board and No 26 Squadron, Air Training Corps in 1985. The restoration of this aircraft, started in 1987, was completed by the Museum in July 1996, and it is painted in its 4 Squadron 1943-44 colours. Currently it is the only Hudson fitted with the ventral &lsquotunnel gun&rsquo gun position.
On the North Island, in Auckland, the Museum of Transport & Technology has Hudson Mk. III NZ2031 (C/No.3854, formerly AE499). Serving with the RNZAF between 1941 and 1947, it was obtained by W. & T. Garr, in Dunedin, the wings being torched off. MoTaT obtained it in 1966, the fuselage being airfreighted to Auckland by RNZAF C-130, and it is currently under a more detailed restoration than was possible previously.
The Ferrymead Aeronautical Society, Christchurch, has Hudson Mk.III NZ2035 (C/No.3858, RAF AE503). Disposed of by the RNZAF in 1949, it was used as a chicken house before going briefly to Warwick Bint&rsquos Marlborough Museum of Flight, and ultimately in 1973, with the fuselage airfreighted by RNZAF C-130, and the wings and other parts trucked to Ferrymead, Christchurch, where it is undergoing a very long term restoration.
The fourth New Zealand example is the privately owned Mk. IIIA NZ2049 (C/No. 6465, US A-29A 41-36976, RAF FH175). After RNZAF service it was stored on a farm between 1957 and 1965, when it went to John R. Smith, of Mapua, Nelson in 1969. Mr Smith has a collection of rare machines not on view to the general public, for future restoration.
The Atlantic Canada Aviation Museum (ACAM) in Halifax, Nova Scotia, had the main parts of the only surviving Hudson Mk.VI, FK466 (C/No.6942, US A-28A 42-47022) which was in external store for a number of years. As in the previous Flightpath&rsquos news pages, it was announced that the National Air Force Museum of Canada (NAFMC) at Trenton, Ontario, in association with the ACAM are undertaking the restoration project of this Hudson.
As the NAFMC says: &ldquoThis Hudson is the only Mk.VI left in the world, and when restored, will represent a significant aircraft in the history of Canada&rsquos Air Force. Restoration has already begun with an early estimate of five years to complete.&rdquo It was built in September 1942 as one of the last batch of Lend&ndashLease Hudsons, being assigned to No.31 (RAF) OTU Debert, Nova Scotia, a unit of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. Another aspect making this machine unique is that it was converted to Air Sea Rescue configuration with an Uffa Fox Mk 1 airborne lifeboat at 21 Repair Depot Moncton, New Brunswick in 1944, serving with 1 (Composite) Detachment (later redesignated No. 1 (Composite) Squadron) based in Torbay, Newfoundland.
After a brief career as a target tug, it went to a scrapyard before the fuselage was rescued by ACAM members and transported to Halifax in 1987. It is not complete, and will require numerous items including a tail, cockpit and engines.
The last Hudson on external display worldwide is the example at the North Atlantic Aviation Museum, Gander, Newfoundland. Intended for the RAF, it remained in Canada and was used by Canadian Pacific Airlines and then various photo survey companies the Photographic Survey Corporation, Kenting Aviation Ltd, and Hunting Survey Corporation, between 1949 and 1964, before being laid up.
During the 1967 Canadian Centennial Year, a group of volunteers at Gander decided to erect a monument to the crews of the Royal Air Force Ferry Command who were so vital to the Allied success, flying Hudsons across the North Atlantic, and a Hudson bomber located at Field Aviation in Toronto was donated to Gander. The acquisition of this coveted Hudson was largely due to the work of A.J. Lewington, Les Gettel, Jack James and particularly Marsh Jones for flying the Hudson to Gander on May 17, 1967.
Once in Gander the Hudson was mounted on a pedestal near the airport, and in 1990, volunteers at Gander&rsquos 103 Rescue Unit refurbished BW769 and painted it as T9422 to commemorate the historic flight of D.C.T. Bennett of 1940. Although still outside, it is well presented and cared for.
Remnants & memorials
And there are numerous remains, including engines in the Australian War Memorial, and the Spanish Air Force Museum and a memorial to a 161 Squadron RAF Special Duties machine, FK790, in Holland, and apparently the part fuselage of BW402 in Sackville, New Brunswick, in use as a &lsquoscout bunk house&rsquo! As with a &lsquonew&rsquo rear fuselage piece discovered in Australia recently, there are still items to be found.
With acknowledgement to the AWM staff, including Debra Holland, John White and Jamie Croker, as well as the many people and organisations named and un-named who have helped with Hudson details around the world and over the years. Reference was made from Geoff Goodall&rsquos Warbird Directories, the ever-useful ADF Serials website, and Roy Blewett&rsquos Survivors books.
This object is part of
The Clyde Engineering Company photograph collection is made up of around 1300 ½ plate glass negatives and approximately 4000 triacetate negatives.
The tri-acetate collection appears to date from the late 1930s through to 1960s the glass plates from around 1900 -1950. Most of the photographs are commissioned works taken around the Clyde Works in Granville, Sydney. Others are copies of original photographic prints, blueprints and pages from books. These are hard to accurately date it is almost certain that the collection is the work of numerous photographers unfortunately their identity is at present unknown.
Glass plates were first used to support photographic emulsions in the late 1840s and remained in continuous use right through until the middle of the twentieth century. While the earliest plates supported 'dry' and 'wet' collodion emulsions these were replaced with silver gelatin emulsions in the 1880s. Unlike earlier plates these were mass produced on a huge scale and were capable of fast speeds even at ½ and full plate sizes.
One drawback of this process was that larger plate sizes required a correspondingly large camera to fit the plate. These were relatively cumbersome and when you take into consideration the weight of the glass plates it is no surprise to find they were mainly used for studio and commercial work. However they were still favoured by many professionals for a long time after roll film was introduced by Kodak in the late 1880s. This was because the large plates could be more easily worked on for masking and their contact prints provided better results than some of the early enlarging equipment
Geoff Barker, Assistant Curator, Total Asset Management Project, February, 2008
Gernsheim, H. and Gernsheim A., The History of Photography from the Earliest Use of the Camera Obscura in the Eleventh Century up to 1914. London, New York: Oxford University Press, 1955.
The Clyde Engineering Company photograph collection was acquired by the Powerhouse Museum in December 1987. The material was removed from Clyde Engineering when the offices were being relocated and appears to be only a portion of the original collection. Around 1350 ½ plate glass negatives and approximately 4000 tri-acetate negatives came to the Museum at this time.
The tri-acetate collection is made up predominantly of copies of blueprints and plans of machinery dating from the late 1940s through to 1960s. These subjects may have referred to actual work carried out by Clyde but material appears to have also been used for research and copied directly from books. In 2007 the tri-acetate negatives were placed into cold storage while waiting to be catalogued. In the same year the glass plates were catalogued and digitised as a part of the Total Asset Management Project for the Museum's collection database and website and for Picture Australia.
The subject matter contained in the ½ plate glass negatives covers over 60 years of the Clyde Engineering Company's activities in New South Wales. It starts in the 1880s when the company was still called Hudson Brothers and goes through to the late 1940s. Most of these images were taken at the Clyde Works in Granville, Sydney, New South Wales and many include interior and exterior images of the people and workshops at Clyde Engineering and on the banks of the Duck River.
Some appear to have been commissioned to record the completion of particular Clyde projects such as locomotives, boilers and agricultural equipment at the Clyde works. A few have been photographed in other locations such as the aircraft photographs taken at Bankstown Airport and some works photographed after delivery.
A few photographs are copies of original photographic prints, blueprints and pages from books and these are hard to accurately date. As most of the original negatives were taken over a long time period it is almost certain the photographs are the work of numerous photographers, unfortunately their identity is at present unknown.
Some of the negatives have appeared in a Clyde booklet published for the delegates of the 'Seventh Congress of the Chamber of Commerce of the British Empire in 1909' and a Clyde booklet held by the museum which was published around 1945. These publications and the fact that some of the negatives have been masked make it clear that the while the photographers were cataloguing the accomplishments of the company they were also creating content used to advertise and promote the company's products.
Two photographers who did photographic work for Clyde from the 1960s onwards were Charles French of 87 Yarram Street, Lidcombe in New South Wales and Jack Draper an employee and photographer employed by Clyde Engineering around the same period.
Geoff Barker, Assistant Curator, Total Asset Management Project, February, 2008
Lockheed Hudson fuselage under construction - History
Hasegawa's 1/48 scale P-39Q/N Airacobra is available online from Squadron.com
This project was initiated as part of an IPMS Auckland group build of RNZAF aircraft to celebrate the 75th anniversary of our Air Force in 2012. I had already completed an RNZAF Skyhawk earlier in the year but still hadn&rsquot gotten rid of the RNZAF bug &ndash so what to build? I had a half-built Aermacchi MB 339 but without decals it will have to languish in the box for now. I also had an Avenger, Mosquito, Harvard, Dauntless and Shagbat in the stash but I was after something that would be a fairly quick build.
Enter the Classic Airframes Lockheed Hudson. I was at the point of ditching this kit in favour of the nice shiny new Revell Ventura - so how to turn this plastic monstrosity into a fast easy build? Hmmmmmm.
The slots in the wing tips would need an interior made to connect the upper and lower surface so how about we just cut off those nasty wings. The resin engines are also a bit rough and the cowls lacklustre &ndash let&rsquos biff those out too. It&rsquos really going to need a fuselage interior but I can&rsquot be bothered so why not just fog up the windows so it can&rsquot be seen. Hey it&rsquos half built before I&rsquove even started and not only that it&rsquos only half an aeroplane to paint as well.
Moreover I have a truckload of walkaround photos I took of the MoTaT Hudson when it was being restored just itching to be used. The decision had been made the can of worms was opened.
At the conclusion of WWII, many of the RNZAFs combat aircraft were put into outdoor storage at Rukuhia near Hamilton. The Lend Lease deal they were acquired under meant that they were owned by the US with the NZ Govt having the option to buy them. With the war now over we didn&rsquot want them. The US didn&rsquot want them either so they had to be sold as scrap with the earnings going back to the US Govt. Rukuhia was administered by the RNZAF up until 1948 and the aircraft there maintained by them. Eventually most were auctioned off as scrap some being smelted on site.
Many aircraft parts were also sold to interested parties such as wheels to use on trailers, canopy escape hatches for greenhouses to grow cabbages under and of course once the RNZAF had left vandals had a good go at them too.
Aftermarket Products Used
Braz Models - Lockheed Hudson resin wheels
Scale Link - Duncan Sheep 1:43 &ldquoO&rdquo scale
First up I got stuck into the wings with a razor saw cutting them off just outside of the engine nacelles. Next I made wheel wells in the bottom wing halves which of course won&rsquot be seen on the completed kit. Then the halves were glued together using the fuselage wing root as a shape guide. Once set they were internally braced before adding scratchbuilt end ribs and interior wing flap ribs and Fowler flap guide rails.
I then attacked the cockpit. The CA resin was actually quite nice and fitted the interior fuselage shape very well however, getting the cockpit parts glued together was difficult. Much guesswork, dryfitting, trial gluing and then snapping bits off and re-gluing was necessary. Unfortunately there are more things wrong with the cockpit&rsquos accuracy than you can point a stick at.
I hacked up the control panel to move some of the instruments around adding decals from the spares box to the faces of some and also making throttle levers from scrap PE. The seats required reshaping and a radio operators compartment was made as there was none in the kit. This is when I discovered that the rear bulkhead of the cockpit should be further back but there was no way to fix it easily so I left it alone. Then I scratchbuilt the stairs leading to the nose and also the entire nose interior. What little CA resin there was supplied for the nose section was highly inaccurate and most of it was replaced.
I also cut out a couple of windows and left off the nose glass so the interior could be seen more clearly. The interior was painted Humbrol 78 UK Cockpit Green to match what would have been a US equivalent paint colour.
All the ill-fitting windows were glued in place with plastic cement, left to set and then the gaps filled with super glue. Since they would be fogged anyway I just sanded them flush with the fuselage. I decided to leave the bomb doors closed as I already had enough work to do. Photos of Hudsons in the wild at Rukuhia show the bomb doors hanging open so I would have to keep mine closed by jamming a 44gal drum underneath.
Next, I scratch built the framework for the gun turret to sit on as the CA instructions would have you glue it to thin air. A proper interior also had to be made for the turret as you would see the shadows when it is complete. I also corrected the tailwheel position and removed the tail fairing to show the underlying structure. I removed the DF loop too as it seems to be missing in most period photos from Rukuhia.
The horizontal tailplane needed a bit of reworking especially squaring off the trailing edges where it meets with the rudder. I also dropped the elevator for added interest and removed the left tail plane tip to show the rudder cable.
Once I was happy with the dryfitting I glued the fuselage halves together. I then attached the tailplane using my Mk. 1 eyeball to line it up &ldquostraight&rdquo. There are pretty much no straight lines in this kit so it&rsquos best to look at it from an angle. I now reworked the lower engine nacelles adding most of the internal structure and also tidied up the landing gear legs and painted them. Then the wings were attached to the fuselage making sure to line them up as much as I could with the tailplane. I used some strips of plastic card glued to the wing roots for added strength and ease of positioning.
Next I attached the landing gear legs to the bottom of the wing using wire for extra strength &ndash there is nothing to really glue them to except for 2 slight depressions.
Now I could finalise the fit out of the lower nacelles. Once I was satisfied with the fit I painted and weathered the nacelle and wheel well interior then glued the lower nacelles in place (as it happens one of them turns out to be oval in cross section). I scratchbuilt the basic firewalls for both engines and glued them to the front of the nacelles. Once set I trimmed them to shape then added all the detail to the front without fear of any breakages. Last on was the clear nose section which actually fitted very well only a small amount of filler was needed.
Painting and Markings
First order was to mask all those fuselage windows. I cut a strip of Tamiya Tape to the window height and lay it down the length of the fuselage windows. I masked both outside edges of this and then removed the first piece. Now I did the same vertically for each window. This left me with each window framed with tape. All I had to do now was mask the windows themselves using the tape edges as my guide. First I placed the round corners using punched out circles followed by the 4 edges of each and then a piece to mask the centre. Lastly I removed all the surrounding tape to reveal lovely masked windows a lot of effort but well worth it.
I started by hand painting the wing end ribs in an RAF Sky colour (Tamiya XF21 Sky) as this would have most likely been the approximate original factory colour and probably not subjected to the RNZAF repaint protocol. Next I sprayed the topside camouflage freehand giving each colour some lighter post-shading as a precursor to the heavier weathering yet to come. It can be very difficult to judge when you have done enough as the colours look so different under various lighting conditions. Next I masked and sprayed the lower surface colour. Once satisfied with the initial painting and weathering I masked up the roundels and the lettering. Firstly I sprayed them with an unweathered version of the underlying colour then only oversprayed what colours I needed to get the worn-off look. A bit of drybrushing completed the illusion. Next I sprayed the engine firewalls aluminium and &ldquogreased&rdquo them up a bit using several washes of oil paint. Lastly I added the serial numbers made using pieces cut from various decal sheets.
Paints used are as follows (all enamels):
Topside RNZAF Foliage Green:
10 &ndash Xtracolor X391 French WW2 Vert Fonce / 1 &ndash Humbrol H105 Marine Green FS 34097 / 1 &ndash Tamiya XF2 Flat White
Topside RNZAF Ocean Blue:
5 &ndash Humbrol 144 Intermediate Blue / 1 &ndash Tamiya XF2 Flat White
Underside RNZAF Grey Green:
5 &ndash Xtracolor X620 Light Green Czech Mig 29 / 1 &ndash Tamiya XF2 Flat White
Roundels RNZAF Blue (approximate mix):
4 &ndash Humbrol H25 Matt Blue / 3 &ndash Tamiya XF2 Flat White
After a coat of satin varnish the model was given an overall wash with Windsor & Newton Artisan water mixable raw umber oil paint mixed in Bars Bugs car window washer detergent. Some panel lines were darkened with further washes with black added. Oil stains were drybrushed and some paint chipping applied with a fine brush using Tamiya XF16 Flat Aluminium. I also grubbied-up the exterior using some of the Tamiya Weathering Master sets which I was using for the first time. They seem to be quite good although a finer applicator would be useful. I didn&rsquot bother doing too much on the undersides as they are mostly unseen. A matt varnish was then sprayed to finish the job.
The breakable bits were now added. Firstly the Yagi radar ASV antennae on the fuselage. The fairings where they attach to the fuselage were made by heating the end of a piece of sprue over a candle and pressing it into an Eduard PE set that had the airfoil shapes along its edge. Note: the PE with the airfoil shapes is pretty poor for doing this as the plastic expands on the other side of the hole thus welding itself to the PE. Removing the sprue almost destroys the PE!
The aerials were first thinned out to be more in scale before they were attached and the tailwheel leg glued in position sans wheel. Next the canopy was glued in place with its escape hatch removed as is commonly seen in period photos. A Final touch with some white oil paint to mimic bird poo and Bob&rsquos your uncle.
The diorama is basically a model railroad grass mat glued to a piece of MDF and then hacked up using my electric shaver to make it look more realistic. All I had to do was add some 44 gal drums &ndash two to prop up the tail and one to keep the bomb doors closed. Some sheep were then enlisted to give it a distinctly Kiwi feel. The cast metal sheep were a bit rough but a couple of coats of super glue evened out the surface.
So it looks like a decent model can be made from the CA Hudson after all even if you do throw half of it away. Not the fast build I was after but once I got involved it was a fight worth winning. There are just so many flaws in this kit, including several I accidentally introduced, that it would be a mission and a half to fix them all. CA gives you the basic shell and it&rsquos up to the builder to make a decent job of it.
Having said that &ldquowrecking&rdquo an aircraft can solve all manner of kit problems from lost or broken bits to lack of decals and ruined canopies. I can highly recommend the challenge of building an abandoned, derelict or wrecked aircraft for your next group build.
“In the Footsteps of the Valiant” : Volume One : the Verdict (2)
As I said a couple of days ago when I was talking about Volume One of “In the Footsteps of the Valiant”, I had hoped to portray the High School’s war dead as real human beings rather than just a surname and a set of initials in a very long list of names. That is why I tried so very hard to unearth a great number of tiny details which I hoped would help to portray them all as rounded young men rather than just a couple of lines in the School List:
Some of them I could only present as adults because there were no photographs of them as boys.
Alfred Chenhalls was the personal friend and accountant of Leslie Howard, “The Man Who Gave a Damn”. He had lived at 2 Hamilton Drive in The Park, his family occupying the whole house, not just a flat as it would be nowadays:
Edwin Thomas Banks lived at No 7 Rutland Road in West Bridgford. As I discovered from his squadron’s log book, he was killed flying his Gloster Gladiator biplane into Lake Ioannina in Greece. He was buried with a full military funeral and a large number of Greek Generals in attendance. As one of his friends said: “coldest wait ever.” At school, Edwin had been a keen rower: “Not very heavy but a hard worker. He sits the boat well. There was a noticeable improvement in the Second Crew when he stroked it. Although he has a good beginning he is still rather short.” As well as short, he is also rather blurred in the only picture I could find of him :
Howard Rolleston Simmonds lived at 28 Nottingham Road in Bingham. He went to Canada to learn to fly, one of the 131,533 aircrew who graduated successfully from that enormous country, including the best part of fifty thousand pilots. Howard was sent to help look for a missing aeroplane, a Lockheed Hudson which had been lost off the coast of Nova Scotia. He was the pilot of an Avro Anson I, 652A, with a serial number of W1754. He and his crew just flew off and were never seen again and no wreck has ever been found. Here he is in uniform, proudly displaying his wings:
And here he is sitting in his Anson:
John Harold Gilbert Walker was a Spitfire pilot who was shot down over northern France in 1941. The objective was the railway marshalling yards at Hazebrouck on the outskirts of Dunkirk and four squadrons of Spitfires, including Nos 118 and 457, were escorting just six Douglas Boston Mark III bombers. He was already a veteran of the Battle of Britain, flying a Bristol Blenheim nightfighter:
Keith Henry Whitson served in India with the Royal Indian Army Service Corps. He survived the war only to perish at Pindi-Khut eight months or so after the end of hostilities. Interestingly, Pindi-Khut seems to have disappeared from the map since World War Two. Again, the only photograph I could get hold of is not particularly sharp :
William Ray Llewellyn from “Torisdale” in Devon Drive in Sherwood and then 136 Melton Road in West Bridgford. He appeared in two school plays. In the first, he played a young woman in “The Admirable Crichton” by JM Barrie. He really was damned by faint praise: “The rest of the cast was quite adequate. I have no criticisms of WR Llewellyn as a Lady’s Maid.”
In what is now pretty much a forgotten play, “The Knight of the Burning Pestle” by Beaumont and Fletcher, he played one of the three Gentlemen who made up “The Spectators”. The overall verdict in the School Magazine was that: “the School play delighted me and many others too. The performance began in the most striking way, with three spot lit Elizabethan cavaliers coming right from the back of the hall up on to the stage. Llewellyn, Marchmont and Rowbotham were realistically discourteous spectators, and throughout their long period on the stage made the most of their restricted opportunities……. William’s little brother, Peter George Llewellyn, also had a rôle in the play. Looking tiny, he played three bit parts, Ralph’s Boy, the Soldier and the Dancer.”
The four actors are Russell Cruddas Lansberry, young Peter, Derrick John Turner and RN Walker (no such person) according to one page of the School Magazine and Robert Norman Walters according to the next page.
And little Peter got an excellent review: “Their fellow dancer, PG Llewellyn, shared their good delivery and confidence. As Ralph’s boy, he played his part with humour as a pikeman he was certainly a menace.”
Again, the picture of his elder brother, William Ray Llewellyn, required a lot of work on Photoshop and is still very poor:
William went to meet his maker in what was then called Ceylon, a place he clearly adored:
“I beheld the dawn yesterday. Not from the foothills of the Himalayas, not even from the more prosaic bedroom window but from the cockpit of an Avenger bomber flying over Ceylon. We had all scrambled whilst it was still dark. The air was still and not a bump disturbed our passage.”
My team and I put a great deal of time into designing the cover. I don’t know if anybody looked at the photographs very carefully but they were all chosen carefully and with a definite link to an Old Nottinghamian in mind. There was a Handley Page Halifax:
There was a Bridge Too Far :
All of a RAF base’s airmen walking back to the Mess after a raid :
Here, Iranian women sit and watch British lorries invade their country with minimal opposition from the Iranian Army and a great deal of co-operation from the Soviet Army :
The most beautiful aeroplane ever built, the saviour of our country, and arguably, the world.
A T-class destroyer of the Royal Navy :
Here’s the return from Dunkirk :
And here’s a Wellington crew just back from Germany.
And this is the war in the North African desert, a location visited by a good many Old Nottinghamians with both the Sherwood Foresters and the South Notts Hussars:
Lockheed Hudson fuselage under construction - History
Constructed as an A-29-LO by Lockheed at Burbank, CA.
Taken on Strength/Charge with the United States Army Air Force with s/n 41-36975.
Taken on Strength/Charge with the Royal Air Force with s/n FH174.
Not actually delivered to the RAF, but rather diverted to the RAAF.
Transported by ship.
Shipped from California to Australia.
Taken on Strength/Charge with the Royal Air Force with s/n A16-199.
Transferred to No. 1 AD (Aircraft Depot).
Arrived in Australia at No. 1 AD. Engines installed at No. 1 AD.
Transferred to 13 Squadron, Hughes Airbase.
From Circa 5 June 1942 to 26 July 1942
Transferred to 13 Squadron.
Arrived at No. 13.
Transferred to No. 1 Repairs and Salvage Unit (Rsu).
Sent to No.1 RSU for a 240 hour inspection.
Transferred to No. 13 Squadron, Hughes.
Operated with markings: SF
Took part in the final Hudson operation by No. 13 Squadron.
Transferred to 2 Squadron, Hughes.
Transferred to 1 Rsu.
Sent to 1 RSU for an engine change.
Transferred to 2 Squadron.
Transferred to 4 Rsu.
Sent to 4 RSU a 240 hour inspection.
Transferred to 2 Squadron.
Took part in the last patrol by a No. 2 Hudson. No. 2 converted to Beaufighters.
Transferred to 3 Comms Unit.
Assigned to 3 Comms Unit.
Transferred to 3 Comms Unit.
Arrived at 3 Comms.
Transferred to 2 AD, Richmond.
Sent to 2 AD for a complete overhaul.
Assigned to 2 AD for storage.
Transferred to Commonwealth Disposal Commission (CDC).
Designated for disposal.
To MacQuarie Grove Flying School.
Flown by Macquarie to their base at Camden.
To John Fairfax and Sons with new c/r VH-SMM.
To Herald Flying Services/John Fairfax and Sons, Sydney keeping c/r VH-SMM.
Photographer: Charles M. Daniels Collection
Returned to service by Fairfax for charter work to Adastra Airways.
Returned from loan to Herald Flying Services/John Fairfax and Sons, Sydney.
To Sepal Pty Ltd/Adastra keeping c/r VH-SMM.
Assigned civil registration: VH-AGJ
New registration for the new owners.
From January 1967 to February 1967
Major overhaul was performed by Adastra, Mascot.
To Adastra Aerial Spraying, CO keeping c/r VH-AGJ.
Markings added: Adastra Aerial Surveys
To Adastra Airways, CO keeping c/r VH-AGJ.
To Hinton Aeroplane Co./Morris Whittingham keeping c/r VH-AGJ.
To Strathallen Collection keeping c/r VH-AGJ.
From 19 April 1973 to 10 May 1973
Transported by ground.
Flown on a series of ferry flights from Syney, Australia, to Stathallen in the U.K.
Photographer: Paul Thallon
Notes: 1973 photo at Strathallan, Scotland of Lockheed Hudson
Photographer: Paul Thallon
Notes: 1976 photo at Strathallan
Photographer: Paul Thallon
Notes: 1976 photo at Strathallan
Certificate of airworthiness for G-BEOX (LOCKHEED 414 HUDSON MKIV, 6464) issued.
To Strathallen Collection with new c/r G-BEOX.
Registered by Strathallen but never actually flown by them.
To RAF Museum.
Auctioned by Christies.
Transported by ground. Delivered to RAF Museum, Saint Athan.
Fuselage moved to Saint Athan for repainting.
Transported by ground. Delivered to RAF Museum, Grahame Park Way, Hendon, London, England.
Moved to Hendon.
View the Location Dossier
Reassembly complete at Hendon.
Civil registration, G-BEOX, cancelled.
Civil registration catching up with the retirement of the airframe.
Transported by ground. Delivered to RAF Museum, Saint Athan.
The wings followed the fuselage to Saint Athan.
Photographer: Andy West
Photographer: Terry Fletcher
Notes: Lockheed Hudson on display in the Historic Hangars Collection at the RAF Museum at Hendon
Photographer: Terry Fletcher
Notes: Lockheed Hudson on display in the Historic Hangars Collection at the RAF Museum at Hendon
Lockheed Hudson fuselage under construction - History
The Lockheed Hudson was the militarized version of the Model 14 Super Electra airliner. The military version made its initial flight in December of 1938. It was the first American built aircraft to be used operationally by the RAF. With the success of the Mk. I version, more powerful engines were fitted to a strengthened airframe resulting in the Mk.III and subsequent versions. Additional modifications were made to later versions to increase range, bomb load, and defensive armament. The U.S. Army Air Corp used Hudsons under the designations A-28 and A-29. One of the A-29's was the first U.S. Army aircraft to sink a German U-Boat in WWII. Upon the outbreak of war, the U.S. Navy took over 20 Hudson III's and designated them PBO-1, one of which got credit for sinking the first German U-Boat by the Navy. The Hudson was also used by the air forces of South Africa, New Zealand, China, Portugal and Ireland.
The Classic Airframes Hudson comes in a typical CA top open two part box. The artwork on the top is a bit different using an actual photo of what appears to be a ship under attack with the artwork of a Hudson superimposed. Inside the box there are several bags, the largest of which contains all of the injection molded parts with the exception of the clear parts. These are bagged separately and there are also two bags containing resin parts. The primary kit parts are molded in a very light gray almost white color. The parts all have a moderate amount of flash with some of the smaller parts showing a lot of flash. Typical of short run kits the parts have no alignment pins and the sprue attachment points are heavy and best removed using a JLC saw. The fuselage window openings on my kit had a ridge of flash around the edges that will need to be sanded down. The kit features recessed panel lines that on my kit are bit inconsistent. Some will need to be re scribed to look right when finished. The surface finish is smooth and except for a rough edge that was present of the leading edge on one top and bottom wing half, there were no surface defects found on the major airframe parts. The wings feature open leading edge slots. The tires have smooth tread and are not weighted. The kit includes two sets of engine cowlings for the two different engines supplied with the kit. The control surfaces are all fixed and the fabric detail on these is nicely rendered. Altogether there are 84 parts in light gray, but several will not be used depending on which version you decide to build. See photos below. Note: both wing sprues are identical and only one is shown.
There are two bags of resin parts with the kit, one of these contains the two different engines that come with the kit plus a couple different intakes and the torque scissors for the landing gear. The parts are molded in a tan resin. The detail level is good but there will be a lot of flash to clean up. Some of it is thin and easily removed but some is not and the pour blocks will require some effort to remove without damaging the cylinder heads. The push rod detail on the single row radials is very nicely done and over all I did not find a lot of bubbles or other defects and once cleaned up and painted they should look quite nice. See photo below.
The other bag contains the parts for the interior. These include bulkheads, seats, the instrument panel, control column, guns and other fiddly bits to dress up the cockpit. No interior parts are included for the fuselage area behind the pilot but this area will not be easily seen anyway. These parts had much less flash than the engines are were free of pin holes and surface defects. Altogether there are 46 cast resin parts. See photo below.
The clear parts were all reasonably clear, the frame elements on the two nose pieces were very faint which will make masking and painting less than easy but the other pieces had well defined frame lines. Two vacuformed pieces with vision blisters are provided depending on the version built. Altogether there are 36 clear parts for a kit grand total of 166 parts for the complete kit. See photo below.
Decals are provided for two aircraft, one for a Hudson I (IV) from No. 1 squadron, RAAF, Malaysia, 1941 and a PBO-1 from VP-82, US Navy, 1942. The decals are thin, glossy and in register and one would expect as they are printed by Microscale. See photo below.
The instructions are standard CA fair, two pages folded in half creating 8 pages. The first page containing history and specifications, the second page with an icon guide, paints required and a parts map, and the balance of the pages devoted to assembly steps. A second page about 8 1/2" x 11" and printed on glossy paper on one side has the painting and marking information.
After Market Goodies
Other than some alternative decal sheet that were sold by Classic Airframes, I'm not aware of any other after market items that are available.
This is not one of CA's best kits but was probably equal to other kits that they were releasing at the time. This kit has been out of production for several years now. That said if you treat it like any other limited run kit as far as clean up and test fitting before assembly it can be built into a real beauty and it is still the only option for a Hudson in this scale. Recommended for modelers with some experience in building this type of kit.
Links to kit build or reviews
A build / review can be found here and here.
Aircraft Profile # 253, Lockheed Hudson Mks I to VI by Christopher F. Shores
prepared by Forest Garner & Emmanuel Gustin
The Hudson's ancestry may be traced back to the Lockheed's Model 10 Electra, a ten-passenger civil airliner which first flew on 23 February, 1934. Designed by Hall Hibbard, Richard von Hake, Lloyd Stearman, and Clarence "Kelly" Johnson, this was Lockheed's first twin engine aircraft. It was Johnson's idea to adopt the twin tail configuration, which would be a Lockheed trademark for many years. Lockheed built 148 production Electras (plus the prototype), the most famous of which was flown almost around the world by Amelia Earhart. An interesting development of the Model 10 was the XC-35, which flew with a pressurized cabin in 1937.
The Model 10 was the immediate parent of the somewhat smaller Model 12 Electra Junior, a six-passenger executive transport. Lockheed built 114 examples of the Model 12 and 16 of a bomber version for the Netherlands East Indies. The latter aircraft later saw combat against the Japanese in late 1941 and early 1942. The Model 12 also served as military cargo aircraft and two, one purchased by France and one by Britain, served as clandestine photo-reconnaissance aircraft over Germany, Italy, and North Africa before the war.
Lockheed followed these with the larger Model 14 Super Electra, a 12-passenger civil airliner. First flown on 29 July, 1937, this aircraft had engines more powerful than those of her predecessors and featured Fowler flaps and a wing designed for higher speeds. Competing against the legendary Douglas DC-3, a larger and more economical aircraft, the relatively advanced Model 14 was not a big success, and only 112 were sold. One of these aircraft, piloted by Howard Hughes, flew around the world in less than 4 days, averaging 206.1 mph. It was a Model 14 that flew Neville Chamberlain to Munich to meet with Adolf Hitler in September, 1938.
In February 1938, Lockheed's design team learned of an impending visit of the British Purchasing Commission and, after five days and nights of rushed design work, proposed the B-14L, a reconnaissance bomber based on the Model 14. The British requested changes which were incorporated within 24 hours. Because the British were already impressed with the Model 14, and because the proposed Lockheed aircraft was cheaper than its competitors and could be delivered in quantity more quickly, on 23 June 1938 the British Purchasing Commission placed an order for Lockheed's proposed patrol bomber. This order specified 200 aircraft to be delivered by 31 December 1939, plus up to 50 additional aircraft if these could also be delivered by that date. All 250 were delivered well before that date (plus one replacement for an aircraft which was lost before delivery), at a price of about $100,000 each. The outbreak of war interrupted delivery because of a 1935 law which put an embargo on arms sales to belligerents. The Neutrality Act, signed by Roosevelt on 4 November, 1939, allowed the British and French to buy weapons on a "cash and carry" basis.
The Hudson was a mid-wing monoplane with all-metal stressed-skin construction. The fuselage was elliptical in cross-section, with a transparent nose to facilitate bomb aiming. The wing tapered toward the wingtips, and had a high loading for its day. To reduce the length of take-off and landing runs, Fowler flaps of generous size were fitted. The Hudson was built with a choice of engines, similar in displacement (about 30 liters) and power (1,100 to 1,200 hp), but each having its own small advantages. The nine-cylinder Wright R-1820 Cyclone was the lighter of the two, while the 14-cylinder Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp ran a little smoother and, because of its double-row layout, had a little less wind resistance. The crew was normally a pilot, navigator, bomb aimer, radio operator, and gunner.
The first 351 aircraft, known as Hudson Mk I, had Wright Cyclone GR-1820-102A engines of 1,100 hp, giving a maximum speed of 246 mph at 6,500 feet. This performance was comparable with that of the contemporary Heinkel 111H-2 bomber. The Hudson spanned 65.5 feet and weighed 17,500 pounds loaded. Weapons included 1,400 pounds of bombs in an internal weapons bay, two fixed forward-firing .303 (7.7mm) machine guns in the nose and two similar machine guns in a Boulton-Paul dorsal turret. Range was a respectable 1,960 miles at a 220 mph cruise. The first flight (there was no prototype) was on 10 December, 1938, and the first arrived in Liverpool the following February.
The Mk I was followed by 20 of the Mk II with a stronger airframe and constant-speed propellers instead of the two-position propellers of the Mk I (a small but important change), 429 of the Mk III with 1,200 hp GR-1820-G-205A engines and a ventral .303 machine gun, 130 of the Mk IV with 14-cylinder Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp engines, and 409 of the Mk V with detail improvements (207 were built with larger fuel tanks). After the Lend-Lease act of March 1941, aircraft were delivered under USAAF designations. The A-28 (52 built) and A-28A (450 built) both had 1,200 hp Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp engines, but the A-28A had an interior that could be converted to a troop transport configuration. The A-29 (416 built) and A-29A (384 built) had 1,200 hp Wright R-1820-87 engines, but the A-29A had a convertible interior. These aircraft were delivered to the RAF, RCAF, RAAF, /RNZAF, USAAF, and US Navy (who accepted the first 20 A-29s under the designation PBO-1), China, Brazil, and Portugal. Additionally, 300 advanced trainers were built for the USAAF as the AT-18 and AT-18A. This brought total production to 2,941 Hudsons before production ended in May, 1943.
Performance improved so that the Hudson Mk IV (similar to the A-28) was capable of 284 mph at 15,000 feet, and had a range of 2,160 miles at a cruising speed of 224 mph. Loaded weight was 18,500 pounds.
The Hudson Mk I began squadron service with the RAF Coastal Command's No. 224 Squadron in the Summer of 1939. By September, No. 233 Squadron was similarly equipped, while No. 220 Squadron had begun to replace its Avro Ansons with the Hudson Mk III. Not long after war broke out, Hudsons also equipped No. 206 and 269 Squadrons. These squadrons all flew maritime patrol and anti-shipping sorties from the British Isles. Additional squadrons were formed during the war until the RAF saw a peak of 17 Hudson squadrons. Other Hudsons flew reconnaissance missions over Germany, occupied Europe, and (in civil registration) southern parts of the Soviet Union.
The Hudson was considered a "hot ship", and was not an easy aircraft to master compared to the docile Avro Anson it replaced. There were many accidents during conversion training. A chief cause was the Hudson's propensity to swing off of the runway during take-off and landing. Pilots also found the cockpit layout inconvenient. In flight, the Hudson was well-behaved and comfortable.
The Hudson's first combat success was on 8 October 1939, when a Hudson Mk I of No. 224 Squadron shot down a Dornier Do-18D off Jutland. In a famous incident, a Hudson Mk III of No. 220 Squadron guided a British destroyer to the prison-ship Altmark in Norwegian waters, freeing many British sailors. Hudsons assisted in the Norwegian campaign and in the evacuation of Dunkirk.
Hudsons began to receive ASV radar in early 1940, and were assigned specifically to antisubmarine duty beginning in August of 1940 from Aldergrove, Northern Ireland. In March, 1941 No. 269 Squadron began operations from Iceland. One of the Hudson's first successes against U-boats was on August 27, 1941, when an Iceland-based Hudson bombed and damaged U-570 and, after repeated strafing passes, observed the U-boat crew to surrender. The Hudson circled the U-boat and called additional aircraft and ships to the scene. U-570 was indeed captured intact, although the crew had thrown the Enigma machine and codebooks overboard. Hudsons went on to achieve two dozen additional successes against U-boats. An Africa-based RAF Hudson of No. 608 Squadron was the first aircraft to sink a U-boat with rockets.
The Hudson was also used by the RAF as a bomber, some 35 taking part in the RAF's second "thousand bomber" raid. Hudsons flown by the RAF, RCAF, RAAF, and RNZAF fought in virtually every maritime theater of the war, including the Mediterranean, South Pacific, Indian Ocean, North Atlantic, Caribbean, and even the East Coast of the United States in support of US forces. Hudsons of No. 161 Squadron were used in clandestine operations, landing in open fields of occupied Europe at night to deliver or retrieve agents or to provide weapons or information to partisans. Many nations used the Hudson to train the crews of bombers and patrol aircraft. Many also served as transport aircraft.
The first two U-boat sinkings achieved by American forces were both achieved by US Navy Hudsons, and the first sinking by the USAAF was also by a Hudson. The first submarine sinkings by Brazilian and RNZAF forces were also by Hudsons (the former assisted by a PBY Catalina).
In service, the Hudson was practical, popular, and surprisingly effective for a converted civil aircraft. Its reliability earned it the nickname "Old Boomerang" because it always came back. The long series of Lockheed maritime patrol aircraft started with the quickly improvised Hudson.
U-boats sunk by this aircraft type (Hudson)
Aug U-570 +,
Mar U-656, U-503, May U-573, Jul U-701, U-754, Oct U-619, U-658, Nov
U-411, U-595 +, U-605, U-259, U-331 +,
Feb U-442, Mar U-83, U-77, Apr U-167, May U-447, U-646, U-273,
U-755, Jun U-594, U-97, Jul U-199 +, Sep U-617 +, Oct U-336,
26 U-boats lost to Hudson aircraft. + means that the Hudson shared the credit for the sinking.