Results of the California Primary February 4, 2008 - History

Results of the California Primary February 4, 2008 - History

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The Collapse of Lehman Brothers: A Case Study

Lehman Brothers filed for bankruptcy on September 15, 2008.   Hundreds of employees, mostly dressed in business suits, left the bank's offices one by one with boxes in their hands. It was a somber reminder that nothing is forever—even in the richness of the financial and investment world.

At the time of its collapse, Lehman was the fourth-largest investment bank in the United States with 25,000 employees worldwide. It had $639 billion in assets and $613 billion in liabilities. The bank became a symbol of the excesses of the 2007-08 Financial Crisis, engulfed by the subprime meltdown that swept through financial markets and cost an estimated $10 trillion in lost economic output.  

In this article, we examine the events that led to the collapse Lehman Brothers.

Key Takeaways

  • Lehman Brothers had humble beginnings as a dry-goods store, but eventually branched off into commodities trading and brokerage services.
  • The firm survived many challenges but was eventually brought down by the collapse of the subprime mortgage market.
  • Lehman first got into mortgage-backed securities in the early 2000s before acquiring five mortgage lenders.
  • The firm posted multiple, consecutive losses and its share price dropped.
  • Lehman filed for bankruptcy on September 15, 2008, with $639 billion in assets and $619 billion in debt.    

The 2017 Cook Partisan Voter Index for this district was D+37, meaning that in the previous two presidential elections, this district's results were 37 percentage points more Democratic than the national average. This made California's 12th Congressional District the seventh most Democratic nationally. ⎟]

FiveThirtyEight's September 2018 elasticity score for states and congressional districts measured "how sensitive it is to changes in the national political environment." This district's elasticity score was 0.83. This means that for every 1 point the national political mood moved toward a party, the district was expected to move 0.83 points toward that party. ⎠]

Committee assignments

U.S. House


Waters was assigned to the following committees: [Source]


At the beginning of the 115th Congress, Waters was assigned to the following committees: ΐ]


Waters served on the following committees: Α]


Walters served on the following committees: Β]


    • Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises, Ranking Member
    • Subcommittee on Insurance, Housing and Community Opportunity
    • Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations
    • Subcommittee on Immigration Policy and Enforcement
    • Subcommittee on Intellectual Property, Competition, and the Internet

    Influenza Virus

    Influenza viruses, which are part of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses, cause the flu.

    Four types of the virus exist: A and B, which are responsible for seasonal flu epidemics in people C, which is relatively rare, causes a mild respiratory illness, and is not thought to cause epidemics and D, which primarily infects cattle and isn’t known to affect people.

    Influenza A virus, which also infects including birds, swine, horses, and other animals, is further divided into subtypes based on two antigens (proteins) on the virus’s surface: hemagglutinin (H), of which there 18 subtypes, and neuraminidase (N), of which there 11 subtypes.

    The specific virus is recognized by these antigens. For example, H1N1 refers to influenza A virus with hemagglutinin subtype 1 and neuraminidase subtype 1, and H3N2 refers to influenza A virus with hemagglutinin subtype 3 and neuraminidase subtype 2.

    Influenza B, on the other hand, is recognized by lineages and strains. The influenza B viruses commonly seen in people belong to one of two lineages: B/Yamagata or B/Victoria.

    Congress enacts first fugitive slave law

    Congress passes the first fugitive slave law, requiring all states, including those that forbid slavery, to forcibly return enslaved people who have escaped from other states to their original owners. The laws stated that “no person held to service of labor in one state, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such labor or service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due.”

    As Northern states abolished slavery, most relaxed enforcement of the 1793 law, and many passed laws ensuring fugitive enslaved people a jury trial. Several Northern states even enacted measures prohibiting state officials from aiding in the capture of runaways or from jailing the fugitives. This disregard of the first fugitive slave law enraged Southern states and led to the passage of a second fugitive slave law as part of the Compromise of 1850 between the North and South.

    The second fugitive slave law called for the return of enslaved people “on pain of heavy penalty” but permitted a jury trial under the condition that fugitives be prohibited from testifying in their own defense. Notable fugitive slave trials, such as the Dred Scott case of 1857, stirred up public opinion on both sides of the Mason-Dixon Line. Meanwhile, fugitive enslaved people circumvented the law through the “Underground Railroad,” which was a network of persons, primarily free African Americans, who helped fugitives escape to freedom in the Northern states or Canada.

    Results of the California Primary February 4, 2008 - History

    Reports by Policy Area
    Recurring Budget Reports
    Search Assignments

    May 18, 2021 | Handout

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Overview of May Revision K-12 Education Proposals

    Analyzes the overall architecture of the Governor&rsquos May Revision plan for school funding, including major spending proposals and underlying estimates of the Proposition 98 minimum guarantee.

    May 13, 2021 | Report

    What Can We Learn From How the State Responded to the Last Major Drought?

    Summarizes how the state responded to the 2012-to-2016 drought and highlights key lessons for current and future droughts.

    May 12, 2021 | Report

    An Initial Look at Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Local Government Fiscal Condition

    Examines what is known about the effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on local governments’ fiscal condition.

    April 26, 2021 | Post

    The 2021-22 Budget

    The Governor&rsquos Proposition 2 Proposals

    Provides an overview of the Governor&rsquos proposals related to Proposition 2 (2014) summarizes and comments on the Governor&rsquos Proposition 2 reserve and debt payment proposals.

    April 14, 2021 | Report

    Improving Parolee Substance Use Disorder Treatment Through Medi-Cal

    Provides background on the ways parolees access substance use disorder treatment (SUDT) assesses the trade-offs between approaches recommends steps to improve the quality of service and create savings by increasing the utilization of Medi-Cal for parolee SUDT.

    March 26, 2021 | Report

    The 2021-22 Budget

    &ldquoCradle to Career&rdquo Data System

    Provides background on process to date toward creating an integrated education data system and other related data tools (collectively referred to as the "Cradle to Career" data system) describes the Governor&rsquos proposals to fund the development of specific components of this system assesses these proposals makes associated recommendations.

    March 19, 2021 | Report

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Department of Toxic Substances Control

    Discusses the Governor&rsquos proposal to implement fiscal and governance reforms for the Department of Toxic Substances Control, as well as the proposal to provide $300 million in one-time General Fund to clean up brownfields across the state.

    March 12, 2021 | Handout

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Authorization of Remote Court Proceedings

    Analyzes the Governor&rsquos 2021-22 budget proposals to authorize remote court proceedings.

    March 10, 2021 | Report

    Strengthening the CalSTRS Funding Plan

    Provides an overview of the 2014 California State Teachers&rsquo Retirement System (CalSTRS) funding plan analyzes the various challenges and complexities of the plan offers several short- and longer-term recommendations for the Legislature to consider to help CalSTRS eliminate the system&rsquos current and future unfunded actuarial obligation, achieve long-term savings, and improve legislative oversight.

    March 9, 2021 | Handout

    High-Speed Rail Revised Draft 2020 Business Plan

    Analyzes the High-Speed Rail Authority&rsquos Revised Draft 2020 Business Plan and provides some issues for legislative consideration.

    March 2, 2021 | Report

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Improving Legislative Oversight of Emergency Spending Authorities

    Provides an overview of the Governor&rsquos emergency spending authorities assesses the Governor&rsquos 2021-22 January budget proposals to extend, modify, and expand emergency spending authorities to continue to respond to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic recommends ways to improve the oversight of emergency spending.

    February 26, 2021 | Handout

    The 2021-22 Budget

    In-Home Supportive Services

    Analyzes the Governor&rsquos 2021-22 budget proposals related to the In-Home Supportive Services program assesses recent growth trends in caseload, hourly wages, and hours per case and provides some recommendations and issues for consideration.

    February 26, 2021 | Post

    The 2021-22 Budget

    UC Programs in Medical Education

    Analyzes the Governor&rsquos proposal to provide a General Fund augmentation to the University of California&rsquos Programs in Medical Education&mdasha collection of medical school programs providing specialized instruction in health equity matters.

    February 23, 2021 | Report

    Updating Special Education Out-of-Home Care Funding

    In the Supplemental Report of the 2020-21 Budget Act, the Legislature tasked our office with convening a work group and providing recommendations for updating the special education Out-of-Home Care formula. This report provides background on the issue, describes the assessment and recommendations of the work group, and includes our office&rsquos comments for the Legislature.

    February 19, 2021 | Post

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Behavioral Health: Community Care Demonstration Project

    Analyzes the Governor&rsquos proposal to establish a demonstration project in which responsibility for treating individuals found incompetent to stand trial and facing a felony charge would be realigned to participating counties.

    February 19, 2021 | Post

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Educator Workforce Proposals

    Analyzes the Governor&rsquos proposals to address teacher shortages and provide additional professional development for school staff provides background, describes and assesses the proposals, and offers associated recommendations.

    February 17, 2021 | Post

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Behavioral Health: Continuum Infrastructure Funding Proposal

    Analyzes the Governor&rsquos proposal in the Department of Health Care Services to provide $750 million General Fund&mdashon a one-time basis&mdashin competitive grants to counties to acquire or renovate facilities for community behavioral health services.

    February 17, 2021 | Handout

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Transition to Safer Pest Management

    Discusses the Governor&rsquos 2021-22 budget proposal to create a tiered pesticide mill assessment, as well as the proposal for increased spending on regulatory activities and integrated pest management programs.

    February 17, 2021 | Post

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Behavioral Health: Medi-Cal Student Services Funding Proposal

    Analyzes the Governor&rsquos proposal in the Department of Health Care Services to provide $200 million General Fund ($400 million total funds) one time to provide incentive payments to Medi-Cal managed care plans to increase the number of students receiving behavioral health services.

    February 16, 2021 | Post

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Analysis of CalAIM Financing Issues

    Analyzes CalAIM financing issues, including both the Governor&rsquos funding plan for CalAIM as well as CalAIM&rsquos policy changes related to Medi-Cal financing.

    February 16, 2021 | Post

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Analysis of the Medi-Cal Budget

    Analyzes the major adjustments to the Medi-Cal budget in 2020-21 and 2021-22, with a focus on the technical adjustments such as the administration&rsquos caseload estimates.

    February 16, 2021 | Handout

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Extension of AB 8 Fees and Funding Securitization for Zero-Emission Vehicle Infrastructure

    Analyzes the Governor&rsquos proposal to extend certain vehicle-related fees to fund air quality and climate programs, as well as securitize a portion of the revenue to support zero-emission vehicle infrastructure.

    February 16, 2021 | Report

    The 2021-22 Budget

    California Community Colleges

    Analyzes the Governor&rsquos major budget proposals for the community colleges, covering base apportionments, enrollment, students&rsquo basic needs, online tools, apprenticeships and work-based learning, instructional materials, and faculty professional development.

    February 16, 2021 | Report

    A Review of State Standards and Inspections for Local Detention Facilities

    Provides an overview of local detention facilities (such as county jails) in California assesses the state&rsquos program for setting minimum facility standards and inspecting these facilities recommends steps to help ensure the success of the program going forward.

    February 12, 2021 | Post

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Community Schools

    Provides background on community schools and funding allocated in the current year to support expansion of existing community schools describes and assesses the Governor&rsquos proposal offers our recommendations to the Legislature.

    February 12, 2021 | Post

    The 2021-22 Budget

    School Mental Health

    Provides background on school-based mental health services describes the Governor&rsquos proposals aimed at increasing such services provides our assessments of the proposals and offers associated recommendations.

    February 11, 2021 | Post

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Analysis of Child Welfare Proposals

    Analyzes the Governor&rsquos 2021-22 budget proposal for child welfare programs provides program background provides key questions and issues for the Legislature to consider.

    February 11, 2021 | Post

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Child Care Proposals

    Analyzes the Governor&rsquos proposal to transition state administration of child care programs. We further provide options the Legislature could consider to support child care programs during the pandemic.

    February 11, 2021 | Report

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Trial Court Operations Proposals

    Examines impacts of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and prior-year reductions on trial court operations identifies issues for the Legislature to consider when determining the appropriate level of overall funding for trial court operations in 2021-22 analyzes three of the Governor&rsquos major budget proposals for trial court operations.

    February 10, 2021 | Handout

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Cap-and-Trade Expenditure Plan

    Analyzes the Governor&rsquos cap-and-trade expenditure plan, which includes "early action" discretionary spending of $624 million in 2020-21, as well as $745 million in 2021-22.

    February 9, 2021 | Posts

    The 2021-22 Budget

    The Medi-Cal Budget Package

    Over the coming weeks, we will publish our analyses of technical changes to the Medi-Cal budget&mdashincluding our assessment of the Governor&rsquos significant projected caseload increases, a series on the Governor&rsquos far-reaching California Advancing and Innovating Medi-Cal (CalAIM) proposal, and the Governor&rsquos behavioral health proposals that relate to Medi-Cal.

    February 8, 2021 | Report

    The 2021-22 Budget

    California Student Aid Commission

    Analyzes the Governor&rsquos major budget proposals for the California Student Aid Commission, including proposals to expand the Cal Grant program and increase financial aid application rates.

    February 8, 2021 | Post

    The 2021-22 Budget

    California Department of Technology

    Discusses 2021-22 Governor&rsquos Budget proposals for the California Department of Technology to use General Fund to pay the costs of some existing information security programs and services, and to create new programs and services to improve the delivery of critical IT services and the stability of legacy IT infrastructure.

    February 5, 2021 | Handouts

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Wildfire Resilience Package

    An analysis in two parts&mdashthe first summarizes the administration&rsquos proposed package and raises a range of issues for the Legislature&rsquos consideration the second includes more detailed information and comments related to each program included in the proposed package.

    February 5, 2021 | Handout

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Analysis of Housing and Homelessness Proposals

    Analyzes the Governor&rsquos major 2021-22 budget proposals related to housing and homelessness.

    February 5, 2021 | Post

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Transitional Kindergarten Expansion Package

    Analyzes the Governor&rsquos Transitional Kindergarten expansion proposals and offers comments for the Legislature to consider.

    February 5, 2021 | Handout

    The 2021-22 Budget

    California Department of Public Health&rsquos COVID-19 Response

    Describes how COVID-19 spending is reflected in the California Department of Public Health&rsquos budget offers options for the Legislature to express its COVID-19-related goals and priorities in light of the administration&rsquos reliance on midyear budget adjustments provides an evaluative framework for assessing the administration&rsquos proposals recommends an after-action review of the state&rsquos public health response.

    February 4, 2021 | Post

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Special Education Proposals

    Provides background on special education preschool and school Medi-Cal billing describes the Governor&rsquos proposals related to these topics details our assessements of the proposals offers associated recommendations for the Legislature to consider.

    February 4, 2021 | Handout

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Department of Forestry and Fire Protection

    Discusses the Governor&rsquos 2021-22 January budget proposals for the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection, including $143 million for hand crews, $8 million for defensible space inspectors, and $54 million for various capital outlay projects.

    February 3, 2021 | Post

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Analysis of the Governor’s CalWORKs Proposals

    Provides background on the California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKs) program gives updates on how caseload has been affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19) pandemic analyzes the Governor&rsquos proposed CalWORKs budget.

    February 2, 2021 | Handout

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Funding for County Probation Departments

    Analyzes the Governor&rsquos 2021-22 January budget proposals to provide additional General Fund support for county probation departments.

    February 2, 2021 | Handout

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Prison Maintenance and Repair Proposals

    Analyzes the Governor&rsquos 2021-22 January budget proposals for prison maintenance and repair, including a $50 million one-time General Fund increase to the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation&rsquos base budget for special repairs and deferred maintenance.

    February 1, 2021 | Report

    Follow-Up Evaluation of the District of Choice Program

    The District of Choice program is one of several laws allowing students to transfer from one school district to another school district. The program is scheduled to sunset on July 1, 2023. This evaluation, prepared at the request of the Legislature, assesses recent trends in the program and provides our recommendations regarding reauthorization.

    This is a follow-up to our previous evaluation, published in January 2016.

    February 1, 2021 | Report

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Analysis of the Major University Proposals

    Analyzes the Governor&rsquos major budget proposals for the universities, covering base funding, enrollment, students&rsquo basic needs, faculty professional development, and deferred maintenance.

    February 1, 2021 | Report

    Evaluating State Economic Stimulus Proposals

    Offers the Legislature guidance on how to evaluate fiscal stimulus proposals poses six key questions to ask when assessing specific proposals provides specific elements that can be incorporated into proposals to increase their potential effectiveness.

    January 29, 2021 | Post

    The 2021-22 Budget

    The Governor’s Suspension Proposal

    Recommends the Legislature reject the proposed suspension language. Given that the state likely faces multiyear deficits, the Legislature might want to evaluate some the suspension items to ensure the programs are meeting their policy objectives.

    January 29, 2021 | Post

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Extended Learning and Academic Support

    Provides background on school closures and recent funding to address learning loss assesses the Governor’s proposal to allocate $4.6 billion to schools to address student learning loss caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and makes recommendations for legislative consideration.

    January 28, 2021 | Post

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Business Tax Incentives

    Evaluates the Governor’s proposed changes to taxation to support businesses and makes recommendations to the Legislature based on two key factors: which level of government would forgo revenue and which businesses would receive assistance.

    January 28, 2021 | Report

    Increasing Oversight of the State Litigation Deposit Fund

    Provides an overview of the Litigation Deposit Fund (LDF), a state special fund created to receive certain litigation proceeds reviews the Legislature’s oversight of the LDF and the use of litigation proceeds and makes recommendations to facilitate increased legislative oversight.

    January 25, 2021 | Handout

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Overview of Proposition 98 Budget Proposals

    Analyzes the overall architecture of the Governor's plan for school and community college funding, including major spending proposals and underlying estimates of the Proposition 98 minimum guarantee.

    January 22, 2021 | Handout

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Small Business Grants

    Assesses the Governor&rsquos proposal to expand a recently created small business grants program by $575 million.

    January 22, 2021 | Handout

    The 2021-22 Budget

    Golden State Stimulus

    Provides an overview of the Governor&rsquos budget proposal to provide a one-time $600 refund to certain low-income workers evaluates the Governor&rsquos proposal and provides a more targeted alternative for the Legislature to consider.

    January 19, 2021 | Post

    How Has COVID‑19 Affected Renters and Homeowners?

    Assesses how coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected renters and homeowners also provides an updated estimate of the total unpaid rental debt in California that has accumulated due to COVID-19.

    January 5, 2021 | Report

    A Framework for Evaluating State-Level Green Stimulus Proposals

    Describes past economic stimulus initiatives, providing examples of efforts focused on environmental benefits identifies key considerations for evaluating state‑funded green stimulus proposals, including the degree to which they are likely to provide significant (1) economic stimulus and (2) environmental benefits concludes with recommendations for the Legislature on how to evaluate the merits of green stimulus proposals, along with steps that might be taken to collect additional information that could aid such assessments.

    December 18, 2020 | Budget and Policy Post

    California Community Colleges—Managing Cash in a Time of State Payment Deferrals

    Provides background on community college cash flow and cash management describes deferrals included in the state’s 2020-21 budget package explains how deferrals are being implemented discusses how community college districts are responding and presents options for the Legislature to consider.

    November 10, 2020 | Budget and Policy Post

    An Analysis of University Reserves

    Provides high-level analysis of reserves at the California State University (CSU) and University of California (UC) describes the segments’ reserve policies, examines their reserve levels, highlights recent developments, and discusses issues for legislative consideration.

    November 10, 2020 | Budget and Policy Post

    An Analysis of University Cash Management Issues

    Analyzes cash management issues at the California State University (CSU) and University of California (UC) compares cash flow, examines how the state and universities invest their cash, and summarizes how the universities helped the state with its cash management during the Great Recession concludes by identifying cash issues that have arisen during the COVID-19 pandemic and discussing related issues for legislative consideration.

    Update on COVID-19 Spending in California

    November 5, 2020

    Provides a high-level summary of state and federal funds provided to date to respond to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) discusses spending authorities, funding sources, and the amounts of spending authorized so far.

    The 2020-21 Budget

    Labor Agreements to Achieve Budgetary Savings

    September 9, 2020

    Provides historical record of all the labor agreements between the state and its employees to reduce state costs in 2020-21 and&mdashin most cases&mdash2021-22 provides comments and recommendations to help the Legislature think through future decisions to reduce employee compensation should the budget problem persist beyond 2021-22.

    What Threat Does Sea-Level Rise Pose to California?

    August 10, 2020

    Describes available research on how rising seas threaten California’s coast in seven categories: public infrastructure, private property, vulnerable communities, natural resources, drinking and agricultural water supplies, toxic contamination, and economic disruption.

    Improving California's Response to the Environmental and Safety Hazards Caused by Abandoned Mines

    August 4, 2020

    Describes historical mining practices, the risks AMLs pose to the environment, the coordination across the many state and federal agencies to address AML issues, and laws and programs governing the remediation of AMLs.

    Review of the Draft 2020 High-Speed Rail Business Plan

    March 13, 2020

    Provides an overview of the high‑speed rail project, describes the major features of the draft 2020 business plan, identifies key oversight issues for the Legislature to consider, and provides options at this critical decision point.

    Analysis of California’s Physician-Supervision Requirement for Certified Nurse Midwives

    March 11, 2020

    Analyzes the impact that removing California&rsquos current physician‑supervision requirement for nurse midwives would have on health care outcomes and access to care for mothers and their infant.

    Excess ERAF: A Review of the Calculations Affecting School Funding

    March 6, 2020

    Identifies concerns about the calculation of excess ERAF and oversight provides recommendations to the Legislature about enforcement and oversight.

    O.J. Simpson acquitted

    At the end of a sensational trial, former football star O.J. Simpson is acquitted of the brutal 1994 double murder of his estranged wife, Nicole Brown Simpson, and her friend, Ronald Goldman. In the epic 252-day trial, Simpson’s 𠇍ream team” of lawyers employed creative and controversial methods to convince jurors that Simpson’s guilt had not been proved �yond a reasonable doubt,” thus surmounting what the prosecution called a “mountain of evidence” implicating him as the murderer.

    Orenthal James Simpson𠅊 Heisman Trophy winner, star running back with the Buffalo Bills, and popular television personality—married Nicole Brown in 1985. He reportedly regularly abused his wife and in 1989 pleaded no contest to a charge of spousal battery. In 1992, she left him and filed for divorce. On the night of June 12, 1994, Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman were stabbed and slashed to death in the front yard of Mrs. Simpson’s condominium in Brentwood, Los Angeles. By June 17, police had gathered enough evidence to charge O.J. Simpson with the murders.

    Simpson had no alibi for the time frame of the murders. Some 40 minutes after the murders were committed, a limousine driver sent to take Simpson to the airport saw a man in dark clothing hurrying up the drive of his Rockingham estate. A few minutes later, Simpson spoke to the driver though the gate phone and let him in. During the previous 25 minutes, the driver had repeatedly called the house and received no answer.

    A single leather glove found outside Simpson’s home matched a glove found at the crime scene. In preliminary DNA tests, blood found on the glove was shown to have come from Simpson and the two victims. After his arrest, further DNA tests would confirm this finding. Simpson had a wound on his hand, and his blood was a DNA match to drops found at the Brentwood crime scene. Nicole Brown Simpson’s blood was discovered on a pair of socks found at the Rockingham estate. Simpson had recently purchased a “Stiletto” knife of the type the coroner believed was used by the killer. Shoe prints in the blood at Brentwood matched Simpson’s shoe size and later were shown to match a type of shoe he had owned. Neither the knife nor shoes were found by police.

    On June 17, a warrant was put out for Simpson’s arrest, but he refused to surrender. Just before 7 p.m., police located him in a white Ford Bronco being driven by his friend, former teammate Al Cowlings. Cowlings refused to pull over and told police over his cellular phone that Simpson was suicidal and had a gun to his head. Police agreed not to stop the vehicle by force, and a low-speed chase ensued. Los Angeles news helicopters learned of the event unfolding on their freeways, and live television coverage began. As millions watched, the Bronco was escorted across Los Angeles by a phalanx of police cars. Just before 8 p.m., the dramatic journey ended when Cowlings pulled into the Rockingham estate. After an hour of tense negotiation, Simpson emerged from the vehicle and surrendered. In the vehicle was found a travel bag containing, among other things, Simpson’s passport, a disguise kit consisting of a fake moustache and beard, and a revolver. Three days later, Simpson appeared before a judge and pleaded not guilty.

    Simpson’s subsequent criminal trial was a sensational media event of unprecedented proportions. It was the longest trial ever held in California, and courtroom television cameras captured the carnival-like atmosphere of the proceedings. The prosecution’s mountain of evidence was systemically called into doubt by Simpson’s team of expensive attorneys, who made the dramatic case that their client was framed by unscrupulous and racist police officers. Citing the questionable character of detective Mark Fuhrman and alleged blunders in the police investigation, defense lawyers painted Simpson as yet another African American victim of the white judicial system. The jurors’ reasonable doubt grew when the defense spent weeks attacking the damning DNA evidence, arguing in overly technical terms that delays and other anomalies in the gathering of evidence called the findings into question. Critics of the trial accused Judge Lance Ito of losing control of his courtroom.

    In polls, a majority of African Americans believed Simpson to be innocent of the crime, while white America was confident of his guilt. However, the jury–made up of nine African Americans, two whites, and one Hispanic–was not so divided they took just four hours of deliberation to reach the verdict of not guilty on both murder charges. On October 3, 1995, an estimated 140 million Americans listened in on radio or watched on television as the verdict was delivered.

    In February 1997, Simpson was found liable for several charges related to the murders in a civil trial and was forced to award $33.5 million in compensatory and punitive damages to the victims’ families. However, with few assets remaining after his long and costly legal battle, he has avoided paying the damages.

    In 2007, Simpson ran into legal problems once again when he was arrested for breaking into a Las Vegas hotel room and taking sports memorabilia, which he claimed had been stolen from him, at gunpoint. On October 3, 2008, he was found guilty of 12 charges related to the incident, including armed robbery and kidnapping, and sentenced to 33 years in prison. He was released on parole on October 1, 2017. 

    Primary election

    Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

    Primary election, in the United States, an election to select candidates to run for public office. Primaries may be closed (partisan), allowing only declared party members to vote, or open (nonpartisan), enabling all voters to choose which party’s primary they wish to vote in without declaring any party affiliation. Primaries may be direct or indirect. A direct primary, which is now used in some form in all U.S. states, functions as a preliminary election whereby voters decide their party’s candidates. In an indirect primary, voters elect delegates who choose the party’s candidates at a nominating convention.

    Indirect primaries for the presidency of the United States are used in many states. Voters in these elections generally select delegates who attend a national political convention and are bound and pledged to cast their ballots on the basis of the preferences of the voters. Delegates may be bound for only one convention ballot or until they are released by the candidate. In some states, the presidential preference vote is advisory and does not bind the delegates. Rules for selecting delegates are determined by the political parties and vary by state. Delegates can be selected on a winner-take-all basis—as in many Republican Party state primaries, in which the candidate who wins the most votes wins all the delegates at stake—or by proportional representation—as in the Democratic Party primaries, in which any candidate receiving a percentage of the votes above some threshold is entitled to at least one delegate. Allocating delegates by proportional representation makes it difficult for a candidate to build a delegate landslide out of a series of narrow primary victories, and Democratic presidential contests usually have taken longer to select a clear front-runner. In an attempt to enhance the power of Democratic party leaders and elected officials and to minimize the influence of the primaries, during the 1980s the Democratic Party created so-called “ superdelegates,” a group of unelected and unpledged delegates that included members of the Democratic National Committee, Democratic governors, and Democratic members of the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate. However, in response to criticism of the influence of superdelegates in the 2016 nominating process, rule changes that limited their power were instituted in 2018.

    The formal, legally regulated primary system is peculiar to the United States. The earliest method for nominating candidates was the caucus, which was adopted in colonial times for local offices and continued into the 19th century for state and national offices. Although the use of caucuses later declined, in the early 21st century a few states continued to use caucuses to choose presidential candidates. Party conventions were instituted as a means of checking the abuses of the caucus system but also became subject to abuses, which led first to their regulation and ultimately to their elimination for most offices except president and vice president. After 1890, mandatory regulations transformed the primary into an election that is conducted by public officers at public expense.

    Although direct primaries were used as early as the 1840s, the primary system came into general use only in the early 20th century. The movement spread so rapidly that by 1917 all but four states had adopted the direct primary for some or all statewide nominations. For the presidential contest, however, primaries fell into disfavour and were generally used in fewer than 20 states until the 1970s, after which most states adopted primaries. Attention from the news media has increased the importance of presidential primaries to the point where success—especially in New Hampshire (which usually has held the first presidential primary) and in other early primaries—gives a candidate a great advantage in publicity and private campaign funding, whereas failure can end a campaign.

    The merits of open versus closed primaries have been widely debated. Proponents of open primaries argue that voters should be able to choose which primary they will vote in at each election. Open primaries allow participation by independents unwilling to declare a party affiliation to vote and prevent intimidation of voters who wish to keep their affiliation private. Party organizations prefer closed primaries because they promote party unity and keep those with no allegiance to the party from influencing its choice, as happens in crossover voting, when members of rival parties vote for the weakest candidate in the opposition’s primary. Several states have adopted variations, including the mixed primary, which allows independents to vote in either party’s primary but requires voters registered with a political party to vote in their own party’s primary.

    Following legal challenges (particularly by the Democratic and Republican parties), some variations were declared unconstitutional in the early 21st century. For example, for more than six decades, the state of Washington employed a blanket primary, which enabled voters to select one candidate per office irrespective of party affiliation, with the top vote getter from each party advancing to the general election. In 2003 the 9th Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals ruled that Washington’s primary was unconstitutional, on the grounds that it violated a political party’s First Amendment right to freedom of association. Washington subsequently implemented a modified blanket system that was a nonpartisan contest in which voters could select one candidate per office, with the top two vote getters per office irrespective of party affiliation advancing to the general election in 2008 this “top-two” system was declared constitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court. In 2010 voters in California, which had earlier also been forced to abandon its blanket primary, endorsed a ballot initiative that established a system similar to that in Washington.

    Although the formal primary system is peculiar to the United States, there are some parallels in other countries. For example, the Australian Labor Party has used a “preselection” ballot, in which candidates in each locality have been selected by party members in that locality from those offering themselves for the preselection vote. Some parties in Israel have also used primaries to select candidates for the Knesset.

    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Patricia Bauer, Assistant Editor.

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