The History of The USS Navejo III - History

The History of The USS Navejo III - History

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Navajo III

(ATA-211: dp. 830; 1. 143', b. 33', dr. 13', s. 13 k. cl. ATA-lSt)

The third Navajo, an auxiliary ocean tug originally designated ATR-138, was redesignated ATA-211 on 13 April 1944 and laid down 20 January 1945 by Gulfport Boiler Jc Welding U orks, Port Arthur, Texas; launched 3 March 1945 - and commissioned at Port Arthur 3 May 1945, Lt. (jg.) James McKnight in command.

Following fitting out and shakedown off Galveston, ATA~ll reported to the Naval Supply Depot, Gulfport, Mississippi 5 June, and thence steamed vla the Panama Canal to San Diego, where she was to join ServRon 2, Pacific.

ATA-2II towed AFL-23 and YT-748 to Pearl Harbor in Jl~ly and remained there to perform ready tug duty and relief towing services with the Waipie Salvage Dock, in the Ocean operations off Pearl Harbor. In October, she cleared Pearl Harbor with YO-12 and YG-28 in tow, and headed for Yokosuka, Japan, where she arrived the 24th. Departing Yokosuka in early November, she returned Pearl Harbor and, joined by ATF-157 and ARD-6, steamed to San Diego. She departed this base 27 December to serve as retriever tug for ATF-167.

After escorting A TF-167 through the Panama Canal, ATA-£II cleared Coco Solo 5 February 1946 and touched at Key West before arriving the U.S. Naval Station, Algiers Louisiana, 11 February. She remained in the 8th Naomi District for most of the remainder of her Naval career, providng towing service to ports such as Mobile Galveston, Pensacola, and Charleston, and assisting in off-tLore salvage operations.

ATA-8II was named Navejo 15 July 1948. She continued operations off the Gulf states and Bermuda into 1962. Decommissioning 10 April 1962, she was stricken from the Navy List 1 May 1962 and was subsequently sold to Twenty Grand Marine Service, Inc., Morgan City, Louisiana, in 1963.

History of the USS Monitor

What does the famed ironclad ship the USS Monitor have to do with Madison, Connecticut? Well, one could argue, she was practically born here.

At the very least, the ship’s most exuberant proponent was born here. Most famous for her role in the world’s first naval battle between two ironclad warships, the USS Monitor was one of three such vessels commissioned by the United States Navy during the Civil War. In the Battle of Hampton Roads, on March 9, 1862, the Monitor fought the ironclad CSS Virginia (formerly called the USS Merrimac) of the Confederate States Navy.

Neither the Monitor nor the Virginia was the first of the world’s warships to be armored with metal, but both were among the first to have their capabilities tested in a naval battle. In fact, after their battle, the U.S. Navy cancelled all plans to build any more wooden warships.

Drawing, John Ericsson- Courtesy Library of Congress

Designed by Swedish-born engineer John Ericsson, the Monitor had a round, rotating gun turret on her deck. The iron turret housed two Dahlgren guns, installed side by side. Innovative in design as well as in construction, the Monitor had components and attributes that were later echoed in submarine design. Her armored deck, 172 feet long and 41.5 feet at the beam, rode just 18 inches above the waterline and extended beyond the hull, which was only 5/8-inch thick and thus nearly submerged for protection against cannon fire. On the deck with the gun turret was little more than a small pilothouse and a detachable smokestack. The turret was made from eight layers of 1-inch iron plate bolted together. A ninth plate within the turret provided a sound barrier.

The CSS Virginia, on the other hand, was fairly conventional. Built upon the hull of the USS Merrimac, it was a wooden vessel covered with iron plates, and it had fixed weapons. Still, she was a formidable threat. When federal authorities discovered in the summer of 1861 that the Confederates were armoring the old Merrimac, they knew they had to commission a unique vessel of their own to challenge her.

The Saga of USS Kidd: A Look Back at the Historic Deployment of Jacksonville’s Rapid Response Team

Photo By Petty Officer 2nd Class Alexander M Corona | SAN DIEGO (April 28, 2020) – A Sailor salutes the national ensign as they disembark the guided-missile destroyer USS Kidd (DDG 100) currently moored in San Diego April 28 as part of the Navy’s aggressive response to the COVID-19 outbreak on board the ship. While in San Diego, the Navy will provide medical care for the crew and clean and disinfect the ship. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Alex Corona/ Released) see less | View Image Page



Story by André Sobocinski

U.S. Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery

In April 2020, the Naval Hospital Jacksonville deployed a special diagnostic unit to the guided missile destroyer USS Kidd (DDG-100), then in the throes of a shipboard outbreak. The team—comprised of two medical officers and five corpsmen—was referred to as the “Rapid Response Team,” and for good reason. Within a mere three hours this team was both conceived, assembled and deployed on a mission to conduct COVID-19 diagnostic testing at sea. To date it is the only deployment of this type of platform in the history of the Navy.

On the morning of April 23, 2020, Comdr. Michael Kaplan was starting his day as the Director of Medical Services at Naval Hospital Jacksonville when his commanding officer, Capt. Matthew Case, alerted him of an outbreak aboard USS Kidd, then conducting counter-narcotic operations with the 4th Fleet.

“He came into my office and said ‘I need you to assemble a team to go to the ship. We’ll need an internist, a prevmed doctor, and we’ll need some corpsmen,’” Kaplan related.

At this point the hospital had already been tagged for activating its Expeditionary Medical Facility (EMF)-Mike and deploying personnel to hard hit communities in Baton Rouge, Dallas, New Orleans, New York, and Stamford. And there was still great uncertainty on the immediate impact of COVID-19 on Naval Hospital Jacksonville and its community.

An allergist by trade, Kaplan volunteered to go knowing that if COVID-19 became an issue in Jacksonville in the ensuing days the other internist—who was also a critical care physician—should remain at the hospital.

The next member of team was the Public Health Emergency Officer (PHEO), Lieutenant Commander Clifton Wilcox. It could be argued that although an unchartered mission, in many respects it was par for the course for an already eclectic career. Prior to entering Navy Medicine, Wilcox had been a Navy intelligence officer and aviator, and even worked as a commercial airline pilot before going to medical school. Since 2018, he was serving as Jacksonville’s occupational department head and PHEO for Navy Region Southeast. And since a preventive medicine officer was not available, his experiences as a PHEO proved applicable and needed for the mission.

Next came the hospital corpsmen. Preventive medicine technicians HM3 Brian Krawsczyn, HM2 Derrick Hudson, HM1 Jason Turgeon, laboratory technician Joseph Kim and general duty Corpsman HN Louis Moyer each volunteered to support a mission where the questions outweighed the answers and the severity of the outbreak was still to be determined.

By 1230—after readying their belongings, securing PPE, collecting guidance on shipboard outbreaks and just hours after being alerted about the mission—the team was ready to go. The CO and the XO drove them and their equipment—including an Abbott ID NOW diagnostic machine—to the airfield where a P-8 Poseidon was waiting them.

HMC Clint Barton had been a veteran of the U.S. Navy since June 2001. As a native of the landlocked town of Edgewood, Texas, the Navy was not necessarily a destination point for him growing up. But like many sailors it was a chance encounter with a Navy recruiter and a yearning to “see the world” that brought him into the sea service.

After boot camp, Hospital Corps “A” School, and working Full Time Support (FTS) in the Navy Reserves, Barton made the decision to become an Independent Duty Corpsman (IDC). Called the “pinnacle of the Navy Hospital Corps,” IDCs have played vital roles in the operational Navy since 1909, when first advanced corpsmen were employed aboard torpedo destroyers.

As Kidd’s IDC, Barton was the point person for all medical issues aboard the ship. His medical complement included two junior corpsmen (aka, “baby docs”) who he described as “stellar” and “hardworking.” A typical day for an Chief Barton prior to COVID-19 included morning sick call, supervising air, water, food and habitability standards, supervising the baby docs, answering technical questions and, of course, a lot of administrative work.

Prior to April 2020, things for Barton and his junior corpsmen were, as he put it, “smooth sailing.” The biggest medical issues were cases of a lingering cellulitis and a peritonsillar abscess. But life aboard Kidd—and across the world—began to change in 2020.

In January, Kidd left its home base of Everett, Washington, just as the first COVID-19 cases began appearing in the state. At sea, Barton kept apprised of the situation through his Force Surgeons and knew that the ship needed to stay on top of the public health issue.

The ship stopped in Hawaii for some quick repairs, to refuel, and get food stores before taking off south. While there Barton heard about that Hawaii’s first cases of COVID. The ship restricted liberty to the base and the crew also began putting in extra cleaning time to sanitize the ship. Before leaving Hawaii Barton secured several gallons of high-strength bleach. “I would dilute and pass out to the crew so they could sanitize their spaces,” said Barton. “And the last half of that clampdown was simply for bleaching everything—all the door knobs, all of the keyboards, the walls and places people touch when they’re moving through passageways.”

On April 13th, a couple sailors came into the sickbay complaining of nausea, mild fever, but nothing too specific. “The guidance at the time told me that they needed to have fever and a number of these respiratory symptoms for me to suspect that it’s COVID, but they didn’t have that,” said Barton.

A week later Barton received new guidance from the 4th Fleet Surgeon that changed the outlook for these cases.

“I immediately went to the XO and said, ‘Sir, you got to read the new guidance. We’re going to have to report suspected cases’—of what they were calling, ‘ILIs’—influenza-like-illness patients,” Barton recalled. “At the time there was no test for it. Now any case of the sniffles, any case of a headache, or nausea—all of which is quite normal at sea was getting reported up the chain.

“I was just hoping we would remain under the radar and that this wasn’t going to get us, but obviously I was horribly wrong,” said Barton. “I knew when that guidance came out on the 20th that my luck had run out, more or less.”

One of the sailors who had come to the sickbay on April 13th had not improved and Barton decided that he needed to be MEDEVAC’d off. The Kidd steamed north 500 miles from where they were operating to get within range to fly him off and ultimately send him to San Antonio. Word soonafter reached the ship that the sailor tested positive for COVID-19.

For Barton, this moment was both a blessing and a curse. On one hand he now knew his adversary.

“Now I’ve got several people on my radar now that I’ve got to worry about,” said Barton. “He’s been sick for about a week and we weren’t isolated because that was what the guidance was saying at the time. But now I now have 80 people in that berthing room that have been exposed to it.”

Anyone who has served aboard a destroyer like Kidd can tell you that is not an environment made for isolation. And keeping “six feet” away from other sailors down narrow passageways and compartments is an impossibility. But that was what Barton now faced.

He credits having conducted an isolation drill months earlier as proving beneficial for putting practice into play. They began isolating suspected cases into a berthing area that could accommodate up to 88 individuals.

“We had to figure out who was sick from Berthing One, designate one side to be the quarantine side and the other side to be the clean side,” related Barton. “We had to partition off the berthing so that people could live there and not get each other sick. The chief problem with this was the ship’s Autonomous Collective Protection System (ACPS) which keeps the environment positively pressured and prevents any external airborne contaminant from infecting the crew. Unfortunately, what contaminant is inside stays inside.”

Barton had to continue keeping watch, control the infection, place suspected cases in quarantine, monitor those in quarantine and somehow ensure that the ship would not be taken out of the fight.

The Abbott, the Rapid Response Team and Makin Island:

After a 3-hour flight to an airfield El Salvador, Kaplan and his team embarked on a SH-60 Sea Hawk helicopter that took them to the Kidd.

Aboard the ship they were greeted by Chief Barton who gave them a run-down, a quick tour and introduced them to the ship’s CO, XO and CMC. They learned that 30 to 40 sailors had been placed in quarantine over the previous days with an assortment of gastrointestinal and pulmonary symptoms.

“It was very surreal,” Wilcox recalled. “We arrived aboard the Kidd. Everywhere you look people had masks on. My first impression was people were on edge.”

The Rapid Response Team (RRT) set up the Abbott diagnostic machine in a forward battle station measuring 12 x 12 feet. That evening they began testing the sailors in quarantine before testing all other crewmembers. Within their first 24-hours aboard the RRT tested 25 percent of the ship.

Ultimately, about a third of the crew (close to 100) tested positive. About 50 percent were asymptomatic.

When the RRT was not testing the crew they worked with Chief Barton to help mitigate the spread of infection and implemented several sanitary practices such increasing the frequency of cleaning common areas and mandating the use of hand washing or sanitizer prior to entering those areas.

Two days into their mission the Kidd rendezvoused with USS Makin Island (LHD-8) to MEDVAC the most acute cases on board.

“I think we had realized that we were going to rendezvous with the Makin Island on the night of the 25th which was technically early Sunday the 26th, and that was about the soonest we were going to start to see people really become acute,” said Kaplan. “When the Makin Island came within helicopter range, we started flying the individuals off ship, and I think ultimately about 15 individuals went over, and then their IDC came over and was basically told that he was going to ride [the] ship with us all the way back into San Diego.”

Before Kidd rendezvoused with the Makin Island, Wilcox went to check on the more severe cases.

“For the first time in a long time I was completely gowned up, went down and borrowed one of their stethoscopes,” said Wilcox. “I looked at about a half a dozen individuals that the IDC had said were the most acute. I listened to their lungs, I did my own pulse ox, and some of them definitely had a crackle sound in their lungs which is very unusual to see that in young, healthy men and women. But none of them had pulse ox below 98, and it’s really the pulse ox that you follow because there’s something called ‘silent hypoxia’ and it’s pretty common with coronavirus.”

Wilcox let them know that the big Navy was flying people out to make sure everything’s okay and that they weren’t being forgotten. With heavy plastic sheeting in multiple areas, the Tyvek suits and the fact it was dark aboard the ship except for red lights Wilcox later commented that it looked like a scene out of the film Alien.

Senior Chief Todd Burkholder, Makin Island’s IDC, reported aboard Kidd on the morning of the 26th. As he later related, “They had already had one of their corpsman go down positive and the IDC was overwhelmed and they needed help.” Owing to his experiences aboard a destroyer and having knowledge of the layout, Makin Island’s CO tasked Burkholder to help Barton and also decide who needed to be MEDEVAC’d off.

Burkholder met with the beleaguered Barton who introduced him to the ship’s CO and then took him to medical. “He was so tired, I could tell that he hadn’t slept in at least a day or two,” recalled Burkholder. “He said, ‘I’m at 26 positives now and more coming and I’ve got 44 sick.’ So they were still testing, but that’s how fast it was happening.”

Burkholder identified 15 in quarantine that needed to get MEDEVAC’d. “They had co-morbidities in almost every case that just didn’t jive well for keeping them on the destroyer, especially with the limited medical capability you have,” said Burkholder. “They were also approaching day five to eight, which is the most dangerous period, and that’s when you don’t want them to crash, especially where you don’t have the gear that the Makin Island has. They have the ability to put them on ventilators, and they had the ability to intubate them and keep them under, and we don’t have that ability at all on the LHD.”

Over the next four hours Kidd transported cases to the Makin Island two by two. Burkholder remained aboard the ship helping Barton and the RRT in caring for the remaining cases until arriving in San Diego.

“It was a hellacious three or four day period where neither one of us slept at all,” recalled Burkholder. “It was one big blur of energy drinks, no sleep, and emails.”

Before reaching San Diego on April 28th, the RRT re-tested 100 percent of the crew with the Abbott machine.

On shore, they were met Medical Readiness Division for Commander, Naval Surface Forces Pacific and the Naval Environmental Preventive Medicine Unit No. 5 (NEPMU-5). “We were then put through the quarantine process along with the entire ship when we arrived,” remembered Wilcox. “We went through tents and they swabbed us and we also all had our blood drawn for antibodies before being placed in quarantine for two weeks.”

In looking back at their experiences, Kaplan, Wilcox and Burkholder all commend the quick thinking of Chief Barton in isolating suspected cases of COVID-19 and preventing what could have been a more devastating outbreak.

Barton downplays his role and lauds the work of the entire crew, all of whom were eager to do their part to help out their shipmates and fill in where needed. He also received direct support from two sonar technicians, a personnel specialist, an electronics technician and a gunner’s mate seaman who did everything from check on patients to helping to transcribe medical care forms into spreadsheets used for reporting.

One year later, the story of the USS Kidd outbreak remains one of resilience and defying the odds. Despite ever-evolving guidance and the (then) many unknowns about transmission, Navy personnel hunkered down and applied their training, quick thinking and utilized the best tools available to limit the spread, conduct advanced testing in a less-than ideal environment, all while ensuring those requiring additional care received it as quickly as possible.

Remarkably, just over a month after coming into port, USS Kidd was back at sea.

Seeking Log Book of USS Buck DD-761

I am looking for logbooks or deck logs or any documentation that shows what USS Buck was doing during 6 - 12 July 1947.  This is associated with a genealogy I am working on for my Father.

Re: Seeking Log Book of USS Buck DD-761
Jason Atkinson 11.08.2020 10:49 (в ответ на Kent Varnum)

Thank you for posting your request on History Hub!

We searched the National Archives Catalog and located the Logbooks of U.S. Navy Ships and Stations, 1941 - 1983 in the Records of the Bureau of Naval Personnel (Record Group 24) that includes the deck log of the USS Buck (DD-761) for July 1947. For more information, please contact the National Archives at College Park - Textual Reference (RDT2) via email at [email protected] .

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and pursuant to guidance received from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), NARA has adjusted its normal operations to balance the need of completing its mission-critical work while also adhering to the recommended social distancing for the safety of NARA staff. As a result of this re-prioritization of activities, you may experience a delay in receiving an initial acknowledgement as well as a substantive response to your reference request from RDT2. We apologize for this inconvenience and appreciate your understanding and patience.

We also searched the website of the Naval History and Heritage Command and located an article about Buck III (DD-761) that states that it was serving in the Pacific Fleet in 1947.

USS Nimitz (CVN 68) History

NIMITZ has answered its country's call many times in response to regional and international crises. In doing so, the aircraft carrier has secured a prominent place in history, just like her namesake, Fleet Admiral Chester W. NIMITZ.

The keel of USS NIMITZ was laid on June 22, 1968 at Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company in Newport News, Virginia. It was destined to become the largest warship ever. The ship was commissioned May 3, 1975, at Pier 12, Naval Station Norfolk, Va. by the Honorable Gerald R. Ford, President of the United States. Principal guests included: the Honorable James R. Schlesinger, Secretary of Defense the Honorable J. William Middendorf, II, Secretary of the Navy Admiral James L. Holloway, III, Chief of Naval Operations and Mrs. James T. NIMITZ-Lay, Ship's Sponsor.

Speaking to a crowd of over 20,000, the President said in his remarks: "Wherever the United States Ship NIMITZ shows her flag, she will be seen as we see her now - a solid symbol of United States strength United States resolve. Made in America and manned by Americans. Whether its mission is one of defense, diplomacy or humanity, NIMITZ will command awe and admiration from some, caution and circumspection from others and respect from all."

Today's crew stands ready, as did the commissioning crew, to answer their nation's call and take their place in America's maritime heritage.

NIMITZ' first deployment began on July 7, 1976 when it departed Norfolk for the Mediterranean. Included in the task force were the nuclear-powered cruisers USS SOUTH CAROLINA (CGN 37) and USS CALIFORNIA (CGN 36). The deployment marked the first time in 10 years that nuclear-powered ships had deployed to the Mediterranean. In November 1976, NIMITZ was awarded the coveted Battle "E" from Commander, Naval Air Forces Atlantic Fleet, for being the most efficient and foremost aircraft carrier in the Atlantic Fleet. The ship returned to Norfolk Feb. 7, 1977 after a seven-month deployment.

NIMITZ again sailed toward the Mediterranean Sea Dec. 1, 1977. Following a peaceful deployment, the ship returned home to Norfolk July 20, 1978. During NIMITZ' third cruise to the Mediterranean beginning Sept. 10, 1979, it was dispatched to strengthen the U.S. Naval presence in the crucial Indian Ocean area as tensions heightened over Iran's taking of 52 American hostages. Four months later, Operation "Evening Light" was launched from NIMITZ in an attempt to rescue the hostages. The rescue was aborted in the Iranian Desert when the number of operational helicopters fell below the minimum needed to transport the attack force and hostages out of Iran. During its deployment, the ship operated 144 continuous days at sea. NIMITZ' homecoming on May 26, 1980 was, at the time, the largest given to any carrier battle group returning to the United States since the end of World War II. The ship's crew was greeted by President and Mrs. Carter, members of Congress, military leaders and thousands of families and friends.

On May 15, 1981, NIMITZ departed Norfolk for the final phases of her workup schedule for an upcoming Mediterranean Cruise. On the night of May 25, an EA-6B Prowler crash-landed on the flight deck, killing 14 crewmen and injuring 45 others. The carrier returned to port to repair damaged catapults and returned to sea less than 48 hours later to complete its training schedule. On August 18 and 19, 1981 during its fourth deployment, NIMITZ and USS FORRESTAL conducted an open ocean missile exercise in the Gulf of Sidra near what Libyan leader Khadafi called the "Line of Death." On the morning of August 19, two NIMITZ aircraft from VF-41 were fired upon by Libyan pilots. The NIMITZ pilots returned fire and shot both Libyan aircraft from the sky. Newspapers across the country rallied around the incident against terrorist-backing Libya with front-page headlines reading "U.S. 2 - Libya 0."

On June 14, 1985, two Lebanese Shiite Muslim gunmen hijacked TWA Flight 847, carrying 153 passengers and crew, including many Americans. In response, NIMITZ was ordered to steam at flank speed to the Eastern Mediterranean, off the coast of Lebanon, where it remained until August. After another extended deployment, NIMITZ left the Mediterranean on May 21, 1987. It crossed the Atlantic Ocean, rounded the rough waters of Cape Horn, South America, and sailed for the first time in the waters of the Pacific Ocean enroute to its new homeport, Bremerton, Wash. NIMITZ arrived there July 2, 1987.

In September, 1988, the ship operated off the South Korean coast to provide security for the Olympic Games in Seoul. On Oct. 29, 1988 NIMITZ began operating in the North Arabian Sea where it participated in Operation "Earnest Will." This operation called for U.S. Navy ships to protect shipping lanes and escort U.S. registered (re-flagged) Kuwaiti tankers. On Feb. 25, 1991, NIMITZ departed Bremerton for the Western Pacific and eventually the Arabian Gulf, where it relieved USS RANGER, during Operation Desert Storm. The ship returned to Bremerton Aug. 24, 1991. NIMITZ again deployed Feb. 1, 1993 to the Arabian Gulf, relieving USS KITTY HAWK to take its place as part of Operation Southern Watch. The ship returned after a mishap-free deployment in August, 1993.

In November, 1995, NIMITZ commenced her deployment to the Western Pacific, Indian Ocean, Arabian Gulf, and to the waters off Taiwan, where once again the presence of carrier forces at sea positively influenced events ashore, calming a volatile standoff between mainland China and Taiwan.

On September 1, 1997, NIMITZ set out on her latest deployment, an around-the-world cruise that would see the great carrier return to her East Coast roots and begin a multi-year overhaul in the Newport News shipyard where she was built.

The around-the-world deployment promised to be an exciting experience with scheduled port visits ranging from the Far East to the Mediterranean Sea however, NIMITZ was ordered into the Arabian Gulf to support Operation Southern Watch and various United Nation initiatives. Answering each challenge, NIMITZ served on station in the Arabian Gulf throughout the holidays and returned to a celebrated and long anticipated homecoming on March 1, 1998.

On 26 May 1998, NIMITZ began a mid-life refueling overhaul that enabled her to provide her nation with a second quarter century of service.

NIMITZ rejoined the fleet midway through 2001. Following sea trials, the carrier returned to Newport News Shipbuilding for a post-shakedown availablity period. On September 21, 2001, USS NIMITZ returned to sea bound for her new homeport in San Diego, California, where she arrived on November 13, 2001.

USS NIMITZ began a four-month Post-Shakedown Availability at Naval Air Station, North Island in January 2002. NIMITZ ended her pier-side availability in May 2002 and conducted sea trials, the first step in preparation for her overseas deployment.

On January 29, 2003, the NIMITZ Battle Group successfully completed a Composite Training Unit Exercise and a Joint Task Force Training Exercise and was been certified by Commander Third Fleet as ready for deployment and capable of conducting the full spectrum of naval operations.

On March 3, USS NIMITZ stood out on her 10th overseas deployment, this time in support of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.

The NIMITZ returned home to San Diego, Calif, on November 5, 2003 and commenced a 6-month Phased Incremental Availability on February 23, 2004. Finishing the PIA on August 23, 2004, the NIMITZ next participated in the Tailored Ships Training Availability I/II/III and Final Exercise Period, which took the carrier off the coast of southern California. Returning to San Diego on November 20, the carrier stood out again on November 29, to participate in a Composite Training Unit Exercise off southern California. The exercise was finished December 20, and Christmas was spent in port San Diego, Calif.

National Marine Sanctuaries History Timeline

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is established and placed within the Department of Commerce.

The National Environmental Policy Act establishes the federal Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) and mandates a process for federal agencies to fully assess and evaluate the impacts of their actions on the environment and disclose those impacts to the public.

President Richard Nixon directs the Council on Environmental Quality to conduct a study of the ocean disposal of wastes. In October, the Council publishes its report, entitled "Ocean Dumping &mdash A National Policy."

October 23 - Congress passes the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act which, among other things, establishes the National Marine Sanctuary Program.Title III of the law is later renamed the National Marine Sanctuaries Act (NMSA). >

Congress passes the Marine Mammal Protection Act and Coastal Zone Management Act.

Congress overrides President Nixon's veto and passes the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, substantially rewriting and strengthening federal water pollution control.

Scientists from Duke University, the State of North Carolina and the Massachusetts Institute Technology (MIT) discover the wreckage of the Civil War ironclad USS Monitor off the coast of North Carolina.

Congress passes the Endangered Species Act.

USS Monitor is nominated for national marine sanctuary status by Governor James E. Holshouser, Jr. of North Carolina.

January 30 - President Gerald Ford approves the designation of USS Monitor National Marine Sanctuary off the coast of North Carolina. It becomes the nation's first national marine sanctuary.

December 18 - President Gerald Ford approves the designation of Key Largo National Marine Sanctuary off the coast of Florida, making it the second national marine sanctuary.

California nominates and NOAA selects Channel Islands, Point Reyes-Farallon Islands and Monterey Bay for further study as potential national marine sanctuaries.

President Jimmy Carter instructs the Secretary of Commerce to identify possible national marine sanctuaries in areas where development appears imminent. His "Environmental Message to Congress" carries a plea for special attention for marine sanctuaries.

November 4 - Congress reauthorizes the NMSA (P.L. 95-153).

Office of Ocean Management established in NOAA

President Jimmy Carter requests that NOAA develop a List of Recommended Areas for marine sanctuaries designation. This process results in a pool of 67 potential sites from which future Active Candidates for sanctuary designation are to be chosen.

NOAA announces the List of Recommended Areas for marine sanctuary designation and List of Active Candidates.

Flower Garden Banks, 100 miles off the Texas and Louisiana coast in the Gulf of Mexico, and Gray's Reef, Georgia are Active Candidates. St. Thomas, Virgin Islands is studied as an Active Candidate for sanctuary designation. Georges Bank, Massachusetts is considered and denied as an Active Candidate because it is determined that existing management programs are adequately protecting the area's resources.

Office of Ocean Management and Office of Coastal Zone Management is combined to form Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management. Sanctuary Program Office established with responsibility for national marine sanctuaries and coastal estuarine reserves.

NOAA removes Georges Bank, Massachusetts from List of Active Candidates.

August 29 - Congress reauthorizes the National Marine Sanctuaries Act (P.L. 96-332). Among other things, the 1980 amendments give Congress authority to review a sanctuary designation before it becomes final.

September 22 - President Jimmy Carter approves the designation of Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary off the coast of California. It becomes the third national marine sanctuary in the system.

January 16 - President Jimmy Carter approves the designation of Point-Reyes Farallon Islands, Gray's Reef and Looe Key national marine sanctuaries off the coasts of California, Georgia and Florida, respectively. These designations bring the total number of national marine sanctuaries to six.

Puerto Rico nominates and NOAA chooses waters off La Parguera, Puerto Rico for study as an Active Candidate.

December 26 - Congress reauthorizes the National Marine Sanctuaries Act (P.L. 97-109).

Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management is merged with the National Ocean Survey under the umbrella of the National Ocean Service.

Flower Garden Banks and St. Thomas withdrawn from consideration as Active Candidates. Fagatele Bay, American Samoa is considered for Active Candidacy. Hawaii Humpback Whale site in Maui, Hawaii is declared an Active Candidate for sanctuary designation.

Cordell Bank is made an Active Candidate. Monterey Bay is removed as an Active Candidate. Termination of first Monterey Bay, California designation effort.

Termination of Virgin Islands designation efforts.

List of Recommended Areas is eliminated and replaced by site evaluation list of 29 sites.

October 19 - Congress reauthorizes the National Marine Sanctuaries Act (P.L. 98-498). "Historical" and "cultural" qualities are included as those qualities that make an area of the marine environment nationally significant and thus worthy of protection. This enlarges the sanctuaries primary mission to preserve marine resources beyond the ecological, recreational, educational, research or aesthetic values. The amendments change the procedures by which sanctuaries are designated by: removing the explicit requirement for the President's approval requiring consideration of a site's educational, historical and research values requiring consultation with a list of entities, including Fishery Management Councils and requiring the preparation of certain environmental studies.

Intent is given to consider Flower Garden Banks in the Gulf of Mexico as an Active Candidate. La Parguera, Puerto Rico is removed from Active Candidacy. Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale site is suspended when Governor Ariyoshi withdraws all state waters from sanctuary consideration.

August - The vessel Wellwood grounds in the Key Largo National Marine Sanctuary.

November - The vessel Puerto Rican sinks in Point-Reyes Farallon Islands National Marine Sanctuary.

A major portion of program funds is spent responding to the Wellwood and Puerto Rican ship disasters in 1984.

Ten Fathom Ledge and Big Rock, North Carolina and Norfolk Canyon, Virginia are studied for status as Active Candidates.

April 29 - NOAA designates Fagatale Bay National Marine Sanctuary off the coast of American Samoa. The seventh of the national marine sanctuaries, it is the first outside the mainland United States.

Norfolk Canyon, Virginia is made an Active Candidate.

The USS Monitor is named a National Historic Landmark. It remains one of the only underwater sites so designated.

Ten Fathom and Big Rock, North Carolina are removed from Active Candidacy.

The Mariners' Museum, Newport News, Virginia, is selected as the principal museum for curation of USS Monitor artifacts and papers.

November 7 - The National Marine Sanctuaries Act is reauthorized (P.L. 100-627). Changes allow the sanctuaries program to issue special use permits, enter into cooperative agreements and collect and use funds obtained from resource damage claims.

Monterey Bay, Olympic Coast, Northwest Straits and Stellwagen Bank are all named as Active Candidates. Santa Monica, California Alligator Reef, Sombrero Reef and American Shoal, Florida are named as study areas.

The vessels Elpis and Alex Owen Maitland ground in Key Largo National Marine Sanctuary. Sanctuary biologists learn that only a few of the reef-dwelling animals have survived. M/V Mavro Vetrantic grounds in the Dry Tortugas. All three groundings occur within a 18 day time.

May 24 - NOAA designates Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary off the coast of California. It is the eighth national marine sanctuary in the system.

August 9 - Congress prohibits exploring for, developing or producing oil, gas or minerals in Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary (P.L. 101-74).

November 16 - Congress designates Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary off the coast of Florida (P.L. 101-605). Key Largo and Looe Key national marine sanctuaries become part of the larger sanctuary.

NOAA&rsquos first marine archaeologist is hired.

Thunder Bay, Michigan is made an Active Candidate. Santa Monica, California is removed from sanctuary designation consideration.

January 17 - NOAA designates Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico. It is the nation's tenth sanctuary and the first in the Gulf of Mexico.

September 18 - NOAA designates Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary off the coast of California. It becomes the eleventh national marine sanctuary. Congress later affirmed the effective date as September 18, 1992 (P.L. 102-587).

November 4 - Congress passes the Oceans Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-587). Among other things, that law: reauthorized the NMSA designated Stellwagen Bank and Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale national marine sanctuaries prohibited leasing, exploring for, producing or developing oil and gas in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary and inserted a new requirement for federal agencies to consult with the program on activities that are likely to injure sanctuary resources.

Norfolk Canyon, Virginia Thunder Bay, Michigan Northwest Straits and Olympic Coast, Washington are named as Active Candidates.

July 16 - NOAA designates Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary off the coast of Washington. It becomes the nation's twelfth marine sanctuary.

In response to the 1989 vessel groundings in Key Largo National Marine Sanctuary, scientists continue restoration efforts. In the summer of 1995, reef rebuilders are hard at work creating new habitats. Original coral structures are rebuilt and later corals, sponges and sea fans are transplanted. In recognition of this historic restoration, the U.S. Department of Commerce awards the NOAA-led team of scientists its Bronze Medal for the successful completion of this unprecedented effort in reef habitat restoration.

October 11 - Congress reauthorizes the National Marine Sanctuaries Act (P.L. 104-283). This reauthorization requires NOAA to prepare a comprehensive management, recovery and preservation plan for the USS Monitor expands provisions that allow sanctuaries to seek private donations and raise monetary or in-kind contributions allows expedited inclusion of Kaho'olawe Island in Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary and adds Stetson bank to Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary.

January 27 - NOAA changes the name of Point-Reyes Farallon Islands National Marine Sanctuary to Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary.

July 1 - After years of public processes, NOAA issues a final management plan and regulations for Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, which was designated in 1990 by Congress

August 26 - Norfolk Canyon, Virginia is removed as an Active Candidate for sanctuary designation.

The International Year of the Ocean is celebrated throughout the United States. President William J. Clinton and Vice President Albert Gore attend the National Oceans Conference in Monterey, California and call attention to the need for ocean protections. Five hundred ocean leaders endorse a comprehensive program for national action for the oceans.

NOAA and National Geographic Society's Sustainable Seas Expeditions prepare to launch a five year deep sea exploration of the nation's twelve national marine sanctuaries. During these expeditions, undersea pilots will photo document the natural history of marine plants and animals from aboard DeepWorker 2000, a one-person submersible. Public education is an important part of the Sustainable Seas Expeditions and educators around the country will share the experience through books, videos and the Internet. The Sustainable Seas Expeditions is made possible through a $5 million grant from the Richard and Rhoda Goldman Fund in San Francisco, California.

April 14 - 26 - The Sustainable Seas Expeditions begins its first sea exploration in Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary in California. This first launch begins the Pacific Ocean explorations that will take expedition pilots to Cordell Bank (April 27 - May 6), Monterey Bay (May 9 - 22) and Channel Islands (May 25 - June 4).

December 6 - President Clinton signs into law a historic funding increase for the National Marine Sanctuary Program. The $11.7 million increase for the 12 marine sanctuaries nearly doubles the program's budget of $14.4 million to $26 million. This action reflects the nation's growing commitment to the conservation of our vulnerable oceans.

September 25 - NOAA designates Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and Underwater Preserve in Lake Huron. It is the nation's thirteenth national marine sanctuary and the first in the Great Lakes.

November 13 - Congress reauthorizes the National Marine Sanctuaries Act (P.L. 106-513). Among other things, the revised law now requires that all national marine sanctuaries be managed as the "National Marine Sanctuary System."

December 4 - President William Clinton signs Executive Order 13178, establishing the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve. The President directs steps to be taken to bring this site into the National Marine Sanctuary System. The new reserve encompasses marine waters and submerged lands of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and extends approximately 1,200 nautical miles long and 100 nautical miles wide. Prohibited within the new reserve are oil or gas extraction, discharges or removal of coral. It also includes 15 "reserve preservation areas."

March 8 - NOAA establishes the Tortugas Ecological Reserve as part of Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. The reserve is, at the time, the largest fully-protected marine reserve in U.S. federal waters.

The non-profit National Marine Sanctuary Foundation was created to expand the reach of the program's education and outreach nationwide. Board members include marine explorer Jean-Michel Cousteau, Director of the Institute for Exploration, Dr. Robert Ballard and ocean explorer Dr. Sylvia Earle. The foundation organizes the first ocean day on Capitol Hill.

The steam engine of the Monitor is recovered within Monitor National Marine Sanctuary and transported to The Mariners' Museum.

The Civil War shipwreck USS Monitor's gun turret had a historic recovery, along with the remains of two Monitor crewmen. Their remains are sent to the U.S. Army's Central Identification Lab in Hawaii for identification. The Monitor's turret is currently undergoing long-term preservation at The Mariners' Museum.

The identity of the steamship Portland, considered New England's Titanic, was confirmed in the waters of Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary. In 1898, none of the 192 passengers survived when the Portland sank in a storm off Cape Cod.

The California Fish and Game Commission voted to establish ten marine reserves and two marine conservation areas in the state waters of NOAA's Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary. This action created one of the largest marine reserve networks in U.S. waters.

At Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary, scientists observed 140 humpback whales, the most ever seen in the sanctuary, on a research expedition cruise.

Two volunteers from Gulf of the Farallones and Olympic Coast national marine sanctuaries were honored with the first Sanctuary Volunteer of the Year awards. Presented by the National Marine Sanctuary Foundation, the annual awards recognize the importance of more than 5,000 volunteers who assist sanctuary staff.

Sanctuary scientists developed the first map of the Gray's Reef seabed.

The Gulf of Farallones Sanctuary Education Awareness and Long-term Stewardship Program (SEALS) celebrated a significant conservation victory after reversing the steady decline in harbor seal pupping. The sanctuary's seal population stabilized, due in large part to the effort of SEALS volunteers who eliminated disturbances by people in areas where the seals rest with their young.

First successful effort to disentangle a humpback whale at Hawaiian Island Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary.

A 500,000 gallon tank, modeled after Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary, was installed at the Tennessee Aquarium. This is part of the sanctuary program's larger effort to work with aquariums across the country to install exhibits about national marine sanctuaries.

At Gray&rsquos Reef National Marine Sanctuary, Georgia Southern University scientists and students discover three previously unknown tunicates or "sea squirts."

Scientists in Channel Islands, Florida Keys and Stellwagen Bank national marine sanctuaries began using acoustic tags to monitor fish (without harming them). The goal is to figure out how fish move relative to their preferred habitats and areas closed to fishing. The tags also tell scientists whether adult fish within marine reserves (fully protected areas) move out and supplement populations in unprotected areas.

Sanctuary staff and NOAA fishery scientists disentangle a juvenile right whale at Gray's Reef that takes about two weeks.

Researchers from Stellwagen Bank place recording devices, known as D-Tags, on the backs of several humpback whales. After retrieving the tags, they analyze whale movement that reveals the humpbacks, when feeding, dive to the bottom, turn on their sides and forage along the seafloor, which can increase their susceptibility to entanglement in gillnets and lobster gear.

A group of local students and visiting scientists go aboard the University of Hawaii's Pisces submarine to survey the deep waters in and around the Fagatele Bay. The first ever submersible dives at American Samoa enable the group to observe a number of new species for the territory.

Scientists announced that they identified six algae species that are new to science and 25 species of crustaceans previously unknown in Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary.

President Bush uses the Antiquities Act to establish the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (originally called the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument), making it the largest single conservation area in the history of the country.

More than three million Americans learn about sanctuaries for the first time from Jean-Michel Cousteau's six-part high definition television series on PBS, "Ocean Adventures."

Scientists exploring areas of Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary discover six species of soft coral and one species of a stony reef-building coral that is common to the Atlantic, but rare in the Pacific. This is the terrestrial equivalent of discovering new areas of rainforests on land.

A collaborative effort by Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary staff and partners leads the International Maritime Organization to redirect the Boston shipping lanes to protect endangered whales off the coast of Massachusetts. The shift cuts the risk of vessel collisions with critically endangered right whales by an estimated 58 percent and all other baleen whales by 81 percent.

November 7 - The container ship Cosco Busan collides with the San Francisco Bay Bridge and spills over 53,000 gallons of oil into San Francisco Bay, impacting Gulf of the Farallones and Monterey Bay national marine sanctuaries. Sanctuary staff and trained volunteers are deployed immediately, helping coordinate the spill response and surveying beaches for the spread of oil and wildlife mortality.

Scientists exploring areas of Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary discover six species of soft coral and one species of a stony reef-building coral that is common to the Atlantic, but rare in the Pacific. This is the terrestrial equivalent of discovering new areas of rainforests on land.

Sanctuaries gain increased public visibility with the opening of two new visitor centers: the Florida Keys Eco-Discovery Center in Key West and the USS Monitor Center at The Mariners' Museum in Newport News, Virginia.

Revised management plans are completed for Monterey Bay, Cordell Bank and Gulf of the Farallones national marine sanctuaries. Changes include the expansion of the Monterey Bay sanctuary to include Davidson Seamount, one of the largest underwater mountains in the U.S.

The fragile marine ecosystems of Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument are designated a "Particularly Sensitive Sea Area" (PSSA) in April by the International Maritime Organization. PSSA designation is intended to protect ecologically and culturally significant marine resources from damage by ships while helping keep mariners safe.

Monitor National Marine Sanctuary staff coordinate a scientific expedition in July to investigate three sunken German U-boats off the coast of North Carolina in an area known as the "Graveyard of the Atlantic." The research mission is the first part of a multi-year project to document several historic shipwrecks lost during World War II's Battle of the Atlantic.

Sanctuary marine archaeologists on an expedition in Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument locate the remains of the historic 19th-century British whaling ship Gledstanes and another unidentified vessel.

A three-story, 100,000 gallon "California Coast" tank exhibit highlighting Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary habitats is unveiled at the newly redesigned California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco in September.

January 6 - President George W. Bush designates Rose Atoll in American Samoa as a marine national monument. The Pacific Islands Region and Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary begin to develop management strategies for the new monument.

The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries successfully hosts the first Ocean for Life immersive education program, bringing together students from Western and Greater Middle Eastern countries to participate in marine science activities. The program seeks to increase cultural understanding using the ocean as a place to find common ground.

Continuing the Graveyard of the Atlantic research effort, sanctuary researchers locate and identify the final resting place of the YP-389, a U.S. Navy patrol boat sunk by a German submarine during World War II, approximately 20 miles off the coast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina.

Sanctuary advisory council members across the National Marine Sanctuary System create a national working group and draft an agreement addressing the issue of ocean acidification and the threat it poses to sanctuary resources.

The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries sponsors and supports a range of film festivals and sanctuary-themed films to bring the ocean to a national audience. Nearly 9,000 people attend the BLUE Ocean Film Festival's debut in Monterey, California.

June 17 - Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary achieves a major milestone with the release of its final management plan, which will guide the sanctuary's resource protection and conservation efforts over the next five years.

The whaling shipwreck Two Brothers is identified at Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. The Two Brothers was a whaler lost in 1823 under the command of Captain George Pollard.

December 3 - Former President Bill Clinton congratulates NOAA on the tenth anniversary of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve.

January 31 - The wreck of a mid-twentieth century fishing vessel, the Edna G., representative of a distinctive regional fishing technique, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the nation's official list of cultural resources worthy of preservation. The Edna G. shipwreck site rests within Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary.

NOAA's Office of National Marine Sanctuaries' Maritime Heritage Program and the University of Hawaii's Marine Option Program complete a survey of sunken World War II-era aircraft and shipwrecks along Maui's southern coast. The two-week survey continues a longstanding collaboration between NOAA and the University of Hawaii in providing students with hands-on training in maritime archaeology surveying techniques.

November 1 - NOAA releases the final management plan and environmental assessment for Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary in Washington state.

Nearly 150 years after 16 USS Monitor sailors died when their vessel sank in a New Year's Eve storm, NOAA's Office of National Marine Sanctuaries releases forensic reconstructions of the faces of two crew members.

April - A new rule prohibiting killing, injuring, touching or disturbing whale sharks and rays is part of the final management plan, regulations and environmental assessment for Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary.

October - NOAA completes the expansion of Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary by adding five additional discrete geographical areas to the sanctuary, including Rose Atoll. The sanctuary's name is changed to National Marine Sanctuary of American Samoa, and the multi-year public process also results in revised sanctuary regulations and sanctuary management plan. The final management plan will guide sanctuary management over the next five to ten years. The sanctuary's new management plan represents a needed update to the original 1984 management plan.

February - NOAA releases the final management plan and environmental assessment for Monitor National Marine Sanctuary, based on several years of scientific assessment and public involvement. The plan outlines how the sanctuary will operate over the next five to ten years. Specifically, it provides a framework for the sanctuary to refine its education and outreach programs continue restoration and conservation of USS Monitor artifacts consider possible expansion of the sanctuary's boundaries and work with the state of North Carolina to strengthen local economies in coastal communities through maritime heritage tourism.

May - NOAA presents the U.S. Coast Guard a national report that finds 36 sunken vessels scattered across the U.S. seafloor could pose an oil pollution threat to the nation's coastal and marine resources. Of those, 17 are recommended for further assessment and potential removal of both fuel oil and oil cargo. The report, part of NOAA's Remediation of Underwater Legacy Environmental Threats (RULET) project, identifies the location and nature of potential sources of oil pollution from sunken vessels. Knowing where these vessels are helps oil response planning efforts and may aid in the investigation of reported "mystery spills" or sightings of oil where a source is not immediately known or suspected. The sunken vessels are a legacy of more than a century of U.S. commerce and warfare.

December - March - In December, a dock adrift as a result of the 2011 Japanese Tsunami is found aground on the Washington coast, in a remote area of Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary. The area also adjoins Olympic Coast National Park, and an area designated as a Wilderness and World Heritage site, and two tribal usual and accustomed fishing areas. In March, NOAA and others complete the salvage of the 185 ton dock, including an immediate focus on the removal of aquatic invasive species. Then, the rest of the dock was cut into 3,000 pound pieces and airlifted, with 200 cubic feet of foam insulation, off the beach.

June 13 - At Capitol Hill Ocean Week in Washington, DC, John Podesta, Counselor to President Barack Obama announces the opening of the new public, community-based sanctuary nomination process. This is the first time in two decades that NOAA has invited communities across the nation to nominate their most treasured places in our marine and Great Lakes waters for consideration as national marine sanctuaries.

Sept. 5 - Driven by strong public support, Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary expands from 448 square miles to 4,300 square miles. The new boundaries now include the waters of Lake Huron adjacent to Michigan’s Alcona, Alpena and Presque Isle counties to the Canadian border, and the sanctuary protects an additional 100 known and suspected historic shipwreck sites.

June 9 - Greater Farallones National Marine Sanctuary expands from 1,282 to 3,295 square miles -- changing its name from Gulf of Farallones National Marine Sanctuary in the process -- and Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary expands from 529 to 1,286 square miles. With this expansion comes the protection of areas of major upwelling that support a vast array of sea life including 25 endangered or threatened species, 36 marine mammal species, over a quarter million breeding seabirds, and one of the most significant great white shark populations on the planet.

The USS Oklahoma

During World War II, a battleship was the largest type of ship you could find in the US Navy, and it had bigger guns than any other type of ship. When the USS Oklahoma was built in 1916, it was the largest and most advanced ship in the US Navy. The USS Oklahoma needed 2,166 sailors and marines to function properly, and could travel 20,000 miles without refueling. It weighed 11,000 tons and carried ten 14-inch guns. The guns on battleships are rated by the diameter of the ammunition used. A 14-inch gun has shells that are 14 inches in diameter and weigh about 1,400 pounds each. That means that each shell fired by one of these guns weighed about the same as three motorcycles. Each of the Oklahoma's guns could fire almost twelve miles.

That is farther than anyone could see, even with binoculars or a telescope, so the Oklahoma had two airplanes it would use to find targets. They are called spotter planes.

Sailors on the USS Oklahoma cleaning one of the 14-inch guns. The gun barrel for a 14-inch gun is over 53 feet long, which is longer than three average-sized cars (image NH 44422, courtesy of Naval Heritage & History Command).

Sailors moving a 14-inch shell around the deck, by hand (image courtesy of the Library of Congress).

The USS Oklahoma demonstrating its firepower during gunnery practice. Each shell fired by her 14-inch guns required 420 pounds of gunpowder (image 80-G-1023157, courtesy of Naval Heritage & History Command).

The USS Oklahoma at the Puget Sound Naval Yard in Washington, September 28, 1940 (1256-40-1701, USS Oklahoma Memorial Association Collection, OHS).

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Community Reviews

Full Disclosure: I received a copy of this book from the author.

For anyone who is not familiar with the story of the USS Indianapolis, this short story is a great introduction.

The book begins with the military trial of Captain Charles McVay, ands ends with a brief description of McVay&aposs life after the trial. The meat of the book describes the sinking of the Indianapolis and what happened to the men who were on board that day. The book is not a blow-by-blow history, with individual interviews of Full Disclosure: I received a copy of this book from the author.

For anyone who is not familiar with the story of the USS Indianapolis, this short story is a great introduction.

The book begins with the military trial of Captain Charles McVay, ands ends with a brief description of McVay's life after the trial. The meat of the book describes the sinking of the Indianapolis and what happened to the men who were on board that day. The book is not a blow-by-blow history, with individual interviews of the survivors. Rather, it is an overview of the events that happened to those survivors, and the horrors they endured while not knowing if they were to be rescued or not.

Mr. Spencer has done a good job, providing a well-written account of the events in July and August of 1945. This book is a quick read and extremely interesting. Four stars. . more

American History USS Indianapolis The True Story Of The Greatest Us Naval Disaster by Patrick Spencer is almost what it claims to be in its rather lengthy title. There is a qualification made with the following statement “The content of this work is intended as a fictional re-enactment of true events for entertainment purposes” (p.2) so we can&apost have it both ways: a “fictional reenactment” and “American History.” This is not a criticism, just an observation.

Published in November 2016, by Mousewo American History USS Indianapolis The True Story Of The Greatest Us Naval Disaster by Patrick Spencer is almost what it claims to be in its rather lengthy title. There is a qualification made with the following statement “The content of this work is intended as a fictional re-enactment of true events for entertainment purposes” (p.2) so we can't have it both ways: a “fictional reenactment” and “American History.” This is not a criticism, just an observation.

Published in November 2016, by Mouseworks Publishing, this 32-page Kindle edition is available “free” on Kindle Unlimited or at a purchase price of USD 0.99. The short work is an introduction to a little-known event in the history of WWII. The event was little known at the time due to wartime secrecy, the fact that the event happened approximately nine days before the dropping of an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, and possible military embarrassment over the sinking itself and subsequent reporting procedures. In an era where we are used to instant communication (Twitter), it may be difficult to appreciate one historic event being eclipsed into obscurity by a historic event occurring nine days later.

The facts presented and referenced at the end of this presentation constitute history. Spencer's presentation of how the men acted and felt during their five days in the water, his depiction of how they must have reacted to the appearance of an increasing number of sharks over five days is gruesome entertainment. The losses of personnel and failures in US Navy accountability procedures that left the crew struggling in the ocean for five days is history. The linking of the effects on this to Captain (later Rear Admiral) McVay that later presumably led to his suicide are the sad components of what passes for entertainment to those with a sense of Schadenfreude.

Patrick Spencer writes in an interesting, readable style that presents history as if he is talking to the reader in everyday language rather than the dry recitation of statistics that sometimes passes for academic history. I look forward to reading more of his work. . more

This book is a fictional reenactment of the true story of what happened to the USS Indianapolis in July, 1945, and the trial of its captain, Charles McVay. The cruiser has just completed a mission that was even secret to her captain and crew and was on her way back to base in the Philippines. On a foggy night, she is torpedoed by a Japanese submarine under the command of Hashimoto. In a matter of minutes, the American ship sank below the black waters taking 300 of her crew with her. Some eight o This book is a fictional reenactment of the true story of what happened to the USS Indianapolis in July, 1945, and the trial of its captain, Charles McVay. The cruiser has just completed a mission that was even secret to her captain and crew and was on her way back to base in the Philippines. On a foggy night, she is torpedoed by a Japanese submarine under the command of Hashimoto. In a matter of minutes, the American ship sank below the black waters taking 300 of her crew with her. Some eight or nine hundred men, many burned and injured, were floating in the shark infested seas. It would be five days until they were spotted by air, and by that time less than half remained.

The most important part of this story is why was the ship was never reported missing, and how could the captain who has acted so valiantly to keep his men alive be charged with disobedience and negligence in the loss of his ship. This trial had a serious impact on the captain's career and later life. What is even more astonishing is that it was not until a sixth grader named Hunter Scott decided to research the McVay trial that the true story became known. What was the mission of the USS Indianapolis and why was its disappearance never reported? Spencer's reenactment of the tragedy allows the reader to experience the full range of emotions associated with this tragedy.

Recommended for readers age ten and older, particularly those interested in American history and politics. . more

Special delivery

The Tomahawk was first used in combat in 1991 during the opening of the Gulf War against targets in Iraq (a total of 288 were launched by US Navy and British Royal Navy ships and submarines). But the Clinton administration was the first to use the Tomahawk as the weapon of retribution of first resort—and Clinton's successors have largely followed suit.

The Tomahawk cruise missile is, in some respects, the perfect weapon for express delivery of a military response. With a range of over 1,000 miles, the Tomahawk takes the potential loss of US airmen's lives out of the equation, and it can be launched with just a modicum of mission planning.

The Tomahawk was originally deployed by the US Navy in 1983 as both a conventional and nuclear weapon—most famously, in armored "shoebox" launchers aboard the recommissioned Iowa-class battleships, where I had my first exposure to the missile. Today's guided missile destroyers can carry three times or more the number of Tomahawks the battleships were loaded with, and they can do a lot more with them. The latest generation of TLAMs can even be redirected in flight through satellite communications and can loiter around a target until the timing is right. This allows a flight of multiple missiles to have the same "time on top" and strike for maximum impact, for example.

But the Tomahawk is not without drawbacks. These expensive (about $1.59 million per shot), low-flying robotic turbojets are not the most effective weapon against moving targets—though the Navy has been working on a version with "synthetic navigation" that can be steered onto a moving target with data from a surveillance aircraft. They also don't deliver the same sort of precision punch that weapons released and guided by an aircraft can, and they are not effective against some types of targets (though that is also changing).

But most of all, Tomahawks are only as accurate as the intelligence that is used to target them. And because of the speed with which a TLAM can be launched as part of a response to a crisis, the targeting intelligence has not always been of the highest quality.

On the ebb tide

Over the years, the survivors of the USS Indianapolis have had regular reunions. At first, it was once every five years, but as more and more crew passed, they decided to make it an annual affair held in the city for which their ship was named. These reunions include a memorial service for those who were lost at the sinking and to honor those Indy veterans who have passed. This group, aside from their advocacy for Capt. Charles B. McVay, III, also were instrumental in the commissioning of a memorial to their lost shipmates, which also is in Indianapolis. It was dedicated in 1995. In its design, which includes a replica of the vessel, a piece of the USS Arizona was placed, connecting the first and one of the last ships sunk in World War II.

As of 2020, there are ten men left, according to the Reporter-Times, and the living memory of one of America's greatest naval tragedies will not last much longer. Still, it is safe to say that the sacrifices of the crew of the USS Indianapolis will be forever etched into naval history.

Watch the video: Geschichte der USA. Folge #04 Die Spaltung der USA 1860