Senators Directly Elected - History

Senators Directly Elected - History


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The Seventeenth Amendment was ratified on April 8, 1913. It providing for the direct election of Senators. Until this time, Senators had been chosen by state legislatures.


Under the constitution, Senators were selected by the state legislators. The framers saw that Senators as representatives of the states. To the writers of the constitution, they were actually representatives of the government of the states and not directly the people of the state. The system began to fall apart in the 1850s as the country sled to the Civil War. In a number of cases, the state legislature was deadlocked, so some states had vacated seats in the Senate. In the post, Civil war period there continued to be challenged in selected Senators. There were frequent charges of corruption. In addition, state legislatures would often be deadlocked, so much so that between 1891 and 1905 states were deadlocked 45 times thus delaying the seating of senators.

As early as the 1820s, there were discussions on the direct election of Senators. The call for change grew and starting in 1893 and amendment to call for the direct election of Senators was introduced every year, but the Senate showed no interest in reforming. In 1907 Oregon initiated on their own direct elections of Senators and a number of other states followed suit.

The publisher William Randolph Hearst became a major supporter of reform, and he made sure that the issue was well covered in his newspapers and magazines. In 1911 Senator Bristow of Kansas introduced a constitutional amendment requiring the direct elections of Senators. One of the strongest supporters of the amendment was Senator William Borah of Idaho. Southern Senators opposed the amendment as did a number of Senators from other parts of the country. However, those Senators that had themselves been elected by direct elections were strong proponents. After a heated debate the Congress passed the amendment on May 13, 1912. It then went to the State to ratify. On April 8, 1913, Connecticut ratified the amendment allowing it to reach 3/4 of the states and become part of the constitution.

The following is the text of the amendment:
The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.
When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.
This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.


Seventeenth Amendment

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Seventeenth Amendment, amendment (1913) to the Constitution of the United States that provided for the direct election of U.S. senators by the voters of the states. It altered the electoral mechanism established in Article I, Section 3, of the Constitution, which had provided for the appointment of senators by the state legislatures. Adopted in the Progressive era of democratic political reform, the amendment reflected popular dissatisfaction with the corruption and inefficiency that had come to characterize the legislative election of U.S. senators in many states.

The amendment changed the wording of Article I, Section 3, paragraph 1, to state that “two Senators from each State” should be “elected by the people thereof” rather than “chosen by the Legislature thereof.” It also revised paragraph 2 of Section 3 to allow the state executive to fill vacancies in the Senate by making temporary appointments to serve until new elections could be held. The full text of the amendment is:

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.


Contents

Class 1 U.S. senators belong to the electoral cycle that has recently been contested in 2000, 2006, 2012, and 2018. The next election will be in 2024.

Class 3 U.S. senators belong to the electoral cycle that has recently been contested in 2004, 2010, 2016, and 2020 (special election). The next election will be in 2022.

Longest service Edit

Senator First served Last served Length of service
Carl Hayden March 4, 1927 January 3, 1969 41 years, 9 months and 30 days
( 15,281 days)
John McCain January 3, 1987 August 25, 2018 31 years, 7 months and 22 days
( 11,557 days)
Barry Goldwater January 3, 1953 January 3, 1965 Combined total: 30 years
( 10,957 days)
January 3, 1969 January 3, 1987
Henry F. Ashurst March 27, 1912 January 3, 1941 28 years, 9 months and 7 days
( 10,509 days)
Jon Kyl January 3, 1995 January 3, 2013 Combined total: 18 years, 3 months and 27 days
( 6,693 days)
September 4, 2018 December 31, 2018

Shortest service Edit

List excludes the incumbent senators who have both served less than a full term


Senators who Made an Impact, Despite First being Appointed (not Elected)

Ronald L. Feinman is the author of Assassinations, Threats, and the American Presidency: From Andrew Jackson to Barack Obama (Rowman Littlefield Publishers, 2015). A paperback edition is now available.

The US Senate, since the beginning of the 117 th Congress this January, has seen a grand total of 1,994 members in its 232-year history.

Among those, there have been a total of 202 appointed Senators since the adoption of the 17 th Amendment in 1913, which provided for direct popular election of Senators.

Therefore, it is common to think of appointed Senators as just temporary replacements, waiting for the next regularly scheduled election for that Senate seat, or until the next even-year election. This has often been true.

But several have ended up being major historical figures in Senate and political history.

This article is the first of two to examine the historical significance of twelve US Senators who, despite being originally appointed rather than elected, made a difference in American history.

Charles McNary (R-Oregon) was appointed in May 1917, and then was elected to the Senate in November 1918, serving until his death in February 1944. He was chosen by the Oregon Governor for the vacancy due to his support of women&rsquos suffrage and Prohibition, two policies that were established by constitutional amendments ratified before the 1920 national election. He was Chair of the Senate Agriculture Committee from 1926-1933, and held the position of Senate Minority Leader during Franklin D. Roosevelt&rsquos New Deal from 1933 until 1944, longer than any Republican has held that post.

He was perceived as a &ldquoprogressive&rdquo Republican who supported much of the New Deal and defense measures as World War II came closer, including the Selective Service military conscription in 1940 and the Lend Lease Act in 1941. A westerner, he supported the development of hydroelectric power, including the Grand Coulee and Bonneville Dams, as public works projects. He was the primary promoter of the proposed McNary-Haugen Farm Relief Bill, twice vetoed by Republican President Calvin Coolidge in the 1920s, which might have staved off or alleviated the effects of the Depression on agriculture. McNary was the Vice Presidential running mate of Wendell Willkie in 1940. In an odd footnote, had the duo been elected over FDR and Henry Wallace, they might have become the first president and vice president to both die in office, as McNary did in February 1944 of a brain tumor, and Willkie of a heart attack in October 1944. My book, Twilight of Progressivism: The Western Republican Senators and the New Deal (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981), has McNary as a leading figure in that group, which cooperated with FDR on many New Deal initiatives.

Carter Glass (D-Virginia) was appointed in November 1919, and then was elected to the Senate in November 1920, serving until his death in May 1946. Glass had earlier served in the House of Representatives from 1902-1918, chairing the House Banking Committee from 1913-1918, and was appointed by President Woodrow Wilson for 14 months as Secretary of the Treasury from December 1918 until his appointment to the Senate.

He served as Senate Appropriations Committee Chairman from 1933 until his death in 1946, and was also President Pro Tempore of the US Senate from 1941-1945. He also helped to establish the Federal Reserve Banking System under Wilson, and was the author of the Glass-Steagall Act that set up the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation under FDR&rsquos New Deal in 1933. However, as a staunch supporter of States Rights, he opposed much of the New Deal, and advocated disenfranchisement of African Americans in his state and nationally, and Jim Crow segregation laws.

Gerald Nye (R-North Dakota) was appointed to the Senate in November 1925, and was elected to three full terms before he was defeated in 1944. He was termed a &ldquoprogressive&rdquo Republican, and my book on the subject included an interview with Nye conducted in March 1971, his last interview with a historian before his death a few months later.

Nye became noted for his investigation of the Teapot Dome scandal, and helping to create Grand Teton National Park. He supported much of the New Deal until later breaking with the President, but became most controversial as a leading isolationist spokesman. This included heading the Nye Committee in 1934-1935, which investigated the munitions industry, and promoting the view that America could have avoided entrance into World War I. He was a leading advocate of the neutrality laws passed by Congress in the mid-1930s. Nye was accusatory toward Jews in the film industry, leading to charges of antisemitism, and was a major critic of both Great Britain and of the Republican Presidential nominee Wendell Willkie in 1940. He was also an active speaker on radio at rallies of the America First Committee in 1940-1941, the leading organization attempting to keep America out of World War II. Nye told me, thirty years after Pearl Harbor, that he believed Roosevelt had plotted to get America into that war. Nye was even ridiculed by Dr. Seuss for his isolationist views and his vehement rhetoric and oratorical manner.

Arthur Vandenberg (R-Michigan) was appointed to the senate in March 1928, after a career in journalism as an editor and publisher in Grand Rapids, and was then elected for four terms, dying in office in April, 1951. Originally supportive of President Herbert Hoover, he would support much of the early New Deal of FDR, but then became part of the conservative coalition that opposed the 1937 Supreme Court &ldquopacking&rdquo plan and the pro-labor Wagner Act, and was an isolationist in foreign policy until after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941.

His position on foreign policy changed radically as a result, and he became an internationalist, making a well-hailed transformation in a speech in the Senate in January, 1945. He became a promoter of the United Nations, and cooperated in a bipartisan fashion with President Harry Truman on the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, and the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization as chair of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee from 1947-1949. Vandenberg was President Pro Tempore of the Senate during the 80 th Congress (1947-1949), so two heartbeats away from the Presidency, and was a &ldquofavorite son&rdquo candidate for the White House in 1940 and 1948. The Senate Reception Room has a portrait of Vandenberg, part of a very select group of seven legislators rated by the Senate as the most prominent in its history.

Harry F. Byrd, Sr. (D-Virginia) was appointed to the Senate in 1933, and served 32 years. Previously, he had been Virginia Governor from 1926-1930 after a career as a newspaper publisher and two stints in the Virginia State Senate. His state political machine dominated Virginia politics for a half century, enforcing literacy tests and poll taxes to deny the franchise to African Americans. He became a leader in the conservative coalition against the New Deal, and opposed as Governor and in the Senate against any racial desegregation, advocating &ldquomassive resistance&rdquo to the 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education.

But in foreign policy, Byrd was an internationalist and supported FDR&rsquos foreign policy as a leader on the Senate Armed Services Committee after World War II. He later became the Chairman of the Senate Finance Committee. Byrd refused to endorse President Truman in 1948 or Democratic nominee Adlai Stevenson in 1952, and was always a thorn in the side of Dwight D. Eisenhower&mdashrefusing to support the Interstate Highway System&mdashand of Lyndon B. Johnson&mdashopposing the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Byrd received 15 electoral votes in 1960, from Mississippi, Alabama, and Oklahoma, in the election that made John F. Kennedy President. His greatest legacy was the creation of the Shenandoah National Park, Skyline Drive, the Blue Ridge Parkway, and the Virginia state park system.

Ralph Flanders (R-Vermont) was appointed to the Senate in November 1946, and then was elected to two full terms, serving until the first days of 1959. He had a career as a mechanical engineer and industrialist, and was President of the Boston Federal Reserve Bank for two years before his Senate career. He served on the Joint Economic Committee in an investigatory and advisory committee, and on the Finance Committee and Armed Services Committee. He promoted public housing, higher education spending, and the Civil Rights Act of 1957 under President Dwight D. Eisenhower.

He promoted arms control in foreign policy, and became noticed when he became the major critic of Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin, who was pursuing what Flanders saw as reckless rhetoric and behavior in his Red Scare tactics from 1950-1954. He was an early and strong critic of McCarthy, saying on March 9, 1954 that he was misdirecting America&rsquos efforts at fighting communism overseas, and causing a loss of respect for America in the world community. His Senate address was a scathing criticism of McCarthy, hailed by many, but attacked by critics as supporting the Communist cause. Flanders introduced a resolution on June 11, 1954, condemning the conduct of McCarthy and calling for his censure for flagrant abuse of power. The US Senate would censure McCarthy on December 2, 1954. Republicans split evenly on the motion, but the total vote was a landside of 67-22, and McCarthy never recovered from the censure. Flanders became a national hero, and a profile in courage to many millions of Americans.


No, Repeal Isn’t Undemocratic

Yes, some strident critics accuse those advocating for repeal of the Seventeenth Amendment of removing the people’s “right” to choose their representatives in Washington. They characterize this return to the Constitution’s original structure as a fringe right-wing idea driven by bigotry that aims to take away power from the American people.

This mendacious scare-mongering deserves a response. First of all, Americans have never had a right to elect their senators. They do have a right to elect their representatives to the House, and they still would if the Seventeenth Amendment were repealed tomorrow. The houses of Congress were always intended to serve two separate functions based on who elected their inhabitants. Moreover, the people would still be able to influence legislative election of senators by voting for state representatives. Repealing the Seventeenth Amendment would not be undemocratic or un-American in the slightest.

So let’s give states back their original power to stop federal overreach by repealing the Seventeenth Amendment. Let’s remedy our century-old mistake. It just might save the republic.

This article was originally published at Merion West.


How Are Senators Elected?

Senators are elected by popular vote in each state. The candidate who receives the most votes wins the election, though in some states, when no candidate receives at least 50 percent of the vote, the candidates with the two highest vote counts compete in a runoff to determine the winner.

Direct election of senators began in 1913. Prior to that, senators were chosen by the legislature of each state, as initially prescribed by the U.S. Constitution. The process was changed to direct election due to various problems and controversies arising from legislative appointment. The state of Indiana in the 1850s is illustrative of the type of problem that led to the change. Anti-slavery Republicans in the northern part of the state clashed with pro-slavery Democrats in the south. This resulted in the state going without a senator for two years. Bribery was also a major issue.

The 17th Amendment mandated popular election. It also gave the governor of each state authority to appoint a replacement should a senate seat become vacant. The replacement senator serves the remainder of the vacating senator's six-year term. At the end of the term, the replacement senator is eligible to run for a full six-year term.


The Difference Between Congress and The Senate

With the writing of the U.S. Constitution, which was ratified in 1787, the framers effectively went back to the drawing board and created a bicameral legislature.

It was modeled after similar forms of government in Europe that dated back to the Middle Ages. Notably, from their perspective, England had a bicameral Parliament as fact back as the 17th century.

The Constitution established the two houses of Congress, with the Senate featuring two members from each state, appointed to six-year terms, and the House of Representatives made up of varying members from each state, based on population, elected to two-year terms.

Importantly, the Constitution originally stipulated that while members of the House of Representatives were elected by the citizens of each state (meaning: those eligible to vote), members of the Senate were instead appointed by the individual legislatures of the 13 states.

This was the case until 1913, with the passage of the 17th Amendment to the Constitution, which effectively changed the process to what it still is today, with Senators elected to six-year terms by the citizens of their respective states.


The States Force Congress to Act

When the Senate continued to resist the growing public demand for the direct election of senators, several states invoked a rarely-used constitutional strategy. Under Article V of the Constitution, Congress is required to call a constitutional convention for the purpose of amending the Constitution whenever two-thirds of the states demand it to do so. As the number of states applying to invoke Article V neared the two-thirds mark, Congress decided to act.


Constitutional framework

The role of the Senate was conceived by the Founding Fathers as a check on the popularly elected House of Representatives. Thus, each state, regardless of size or population, is equally represented. Further, until the Seventeenth Amendment of the Constitution (1913), election to the Senate was indirect, by the state legislatures. They are now elected directly by voters of each state.

The Senate shares with the House of Representatives responsibility for all lawmaking within the United States. For an act of Congress to be valid, both houses must approve an identical document.

The Senate is given important powers under the “advice and consent” provisions (Article II, section 2) of the Constitution: ratification of treaties requires a two-thirds majority of all senators present and a simple majority for approval of important public appointments, such as those of cabinet members, ambassadors, and justices of the Supreme Court. The Senate also adjudicates impeachment proceedings initiated in the House of Representatives, a two-thirds majority being necessary for conviction.


Class I

Senators in Class I were elected to office in the November 2018 general election, unless they took their seat through appointment or special election. Ώ] Class I terms run from the beginning of the 116th Congress on January 3, 2019, to the end of the 118th Congress on January 3, 2025. Ώ]

General election for U.S. Senate California

Incumbent Dianne Feinstein defeated Kevin de León in the general election for U.S. Senate California on November 6, 2018.

Incumbents are bolded and underlined. The results have been certified. Source

U.S. Senate, California General Election, 2012
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Dianne Feinstein Incumbent 62.5% 7,864,624
     Republican Elizabeth Emken 37.5% 4,713,887
Total Votes 12,578,511
Source: California Secretary of State "Official Election Results, 2012 General Election"

2006
On November 7, 2006, Dianne Feinstein won re-election to the United States Senate. She defeated Richard Mountjoy (R), Todd Chretien (G), Michael Metti (L), Marsha Feinland (P&F) and Don Grundmann (American Independent) in the general election. ΐ]

U.S. Senate, California General Election, 2006
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Dianne Feinstein incumbent 59.4% 5,076,289
     Republican Richard Mountjoy 35% 2,990,822
     Green Todd Chretien 1.7% 147,074
     Libertarian Michael Metti 1.6% 133,851
     Peace and Freedom Marsha Feinland 1.4% 117,764
     American Independent Don Grundmann 0.9% 75,350
     N/A Write-in 0% 326
Total Votes 8,541,476

2000
On November 7, 2000, Dianne Feinstein won re-election to the United States Senate. She defeated Tom Campbell (R), Medea Susan Benjamin (G), Gail Katherine Lightfoot (L), Diane Beall Templin (American Independent), Jose Luis Camahort (Reform) and Brian Rees (Natural Law) in the general election. Α]

U.S. Senate, California General Election, 2000
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Dianne Feinstein incumbent 55.8% 5,932,522
     Republican Tom Campbell 36.6% 3,886,853
     Green Medea Susan Benjamin 3.1% 326,828
     Libertarian Gail Katherine Lightfoot 1.8% 187,718
     American Independent Diane Beall Templin 1.3% 134,598
     Reform Jose Luis Camahort 0.9% 96,552
     Natural Law Brian Rees 0.6% 58,537
Total Votes 10,623,608

1994
On November 8, 1994, Dianne Feinstein won re-election to the United States Senate. She defeated Michael Huffington (R), Elizabeth Cervantes Barron (P&F), Richard Benjamin Boddie (L), Paul Meeuwenberg (American Independent) and Barbara Blong (G) in the general election. Β]

U.S. Senate, California General Election, 1994
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Dianne Feinstein incumbent 46.7% 3,979,152
     Republican Michael Huffington 44.8% 3,817,025
     Peace and Freedom Elizabeth Cervantes Barron 3% 255,301
     Libertarian Richard Benjamin Boddie 2.1% 179,100
     American Independent Paul Meeuwenberg 1.7% 142,771
     Green Barbara Blong 1.7% 140,567
     N/A Write-in 0% 173
Total Votes 8,514,089

Class III

Senators in Class III were elected to office in the November 2016 general election, unless they took their seat through appointment or special election. Γ] Class III terms run from the beginning of the 115th Congress on January 3, 2017, to the end of the 117th Congress on January 3, 2023. Γ]

Heading into the election, Ballotpedia rated California's U.S. Senate race as safely Democratic. California's U.S. Senate seat was open following the retirement of incumbent Barbara Boxer (D). Thirty-four candidates filed to run to replace Boxer, including seven Democrats, 12 Republicans, and 15 third-party candidates. Two Democrats, Kamala Harris and Loretta Sanchez, defeated the other 32 candidates to advance to the general election. Harris won the general election. Δ] Ε]

U.S. Senate, California General Election, 2016
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Kamala Harris 61.6% 7,542,753
     Democratic Loretta Sanchez 38.4% 4,710,417
Total Votes 12,253,170
Source: California Secretary of State

U.S. Senate, California Primary, 2016
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Kamala Harris 40.2% 3,000,689
     Democratic Loretta Sanchez 19% 1,416,203
     Republican Duf Sundheim 7.8% 584,251
     Republican Phil Wyman 4.7% 352,821
     Republican Tom Del Beccaro 4.3% 323,614
     Republican Greg Conlon 3.1% 230,944
     Democratic Steve Stokes 2.3% 168,805
     Republican George Yang 1.5% 112,055
     Republican Karen Roseberry 1.5% 110,557
     Republican Tom Palzer 1.2% 93,263
     Libertarian Gail Lightfoot 1.3% 99,761
     Republican Ron Unz 1.2% 92,325
     Democratic Massie Munroe 0.8% 61,271
     Green Pamela Elizondo 1.3% 95,677
     Republican Don Krampe 0.9% 69,635
     Republican Jarrell Williamson 0.9% 64,120
     Independent Elanor Garcia 0.9% 65,084
     Republican Von Hougo 0.9% 63,609
     Democratic President Cristina Grappo 0.8% 63,330
     Republican Jerry Laws 0.7% 53,023
     Libertarian Mark Matthew Herd 0.6% 41,344
     Independent Ling Ling Shi 0.5% 35,196
     Peace and Freedom John Parker 0.3% 22,374
     Democratic Herbert Peters 0.4% 32,638
     Democratic Emory Rodgers 0.4% 31,485
     Independent Mike Beitiks 0.4% 31,450
     Independent Clive Grey 0.4% 29,418
     Independent Jason Hanania 0.4% 27,715
     Independent Paul Merritt 0.3% 24,031
     Independent Jason Kraus 0.3% 19,318
     Independent Don Grundmann 0.2% 15,317
     Independent Scott Vineberg 0.2% 11,843
     Independent Tim Gildersleeve 0.1% 9,798
     Independent Gar Myers 0.1% 8,726
Total Votes 7,461,690
Source: California Secretary of State

2010
On November 2, 2010, Barbara Boxer won re-election to the United States Senate. She defeated Carly Fiorina (R), Gail Lightfoot (L), Marsha Feinland (P&F), Duane Roberts (G), Edward Noonan (American Independent), and several write-in candidates in the general election. Ζ]

U.S. Senate, California General Election, 2010
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Barbara Boxer incumbent 52.2% 5,218,441
     Republican Carly Fiorina 42.2% 4,217,366
     Libertarian Gail Lightfoot 1.8% 175,242
     Peace and Freedom Marsha Feinland 1.4% 135,093
     Green Duane Roberts 1.3% 128,510
     American Independent Edward Noonan 1.3% 125,441
     Write-in James Harris 0% 41
     Write-in Connor Vlakancic 0% 11
     Write-in Jerry Leon Carroll 0% 10
     Write-in Hans Kugler 0% 5
Total Votes 10,000,160

2004
On November 2, 2004, Barbara Boxer won re-election to the United States Senate. She defeated Bill Jones (R), Marsha Feinland (P&F), Jim Gray (L) and Don Grundmann (American Independent) in the general election. Η]

U.S. Senate, California General Election, 2004
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Barbara Boxer incumbent 57.7% 6,955,728
     Republican Bill Jones 37.8% 4,555,922
     Peace and Freedom Marsha Feinland 2% 243,846
     Libertarian Jim Gray 1.8% 216,522
     American Independent Don Grundmann 0.7% 81,224
     N/A Write-in 0% 53
Total Votes 12,053,295

1998
On November 3, 1998, Barbara Boxer won re-election to the United States Senate. She defeated Matt Fong (R), Ted Brown (L), Timothy Erich (Reform), H. Joseph Perrin, Sr. (American Independent), Ophie Beltran (P&F) and Brian Rees (Natural Law) in the general election. ⎖]

U.S. Senate, California General Election, 1998
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Barbara Boxer incumbent 53.1% 4,410,056
     Republican Matt Fong 43% 3,575,078
     Libertarian Ted Brown 1.1% 93,926
     Reform Timothy Erich 1% 82,918
     American Independent H. Joseph Perrin, Sr. 0.7% 54,699
     Peace and Freedom Ophie Beltran 0.6% 48,685
     Natural Law Brian Rees 0.6% 46,543
Total Votes 8,311,905

1992
On November 3, 1992, Barbara Boxer won election to the United States Senate. She defeated Bruce Herschensohn (R), Jerome McCready (American Independent), Genevieve Torres (P&F) and June Genis (L) in the general election. ⎗]


John McCain (1936 - present)

Republican Presidential Candidate Sen. John McCain (R-Az.) speaks at a Town Hall Meeting while on the campaign trail in the Toyota Arena August 12, 2008 in York, Pennsylvania. William Thomas Cain, Getty Images

John McCain is the senior United States senator from Arizona. He was the Republican presidential nominee in the 2008 presidential election and was defeated by then-Illinois Sen. Barack Obama.